4.杨明翰英语教学系列之动词篇v0.2

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前言

动词是词性中非常重要的词,其重要程度可以跟名词媲美,
基本上每个完整的子句都有一个动词出现。

动词可以说是所有词汇里最复杂的词了,没有之一,各种变化无常。
动词的知识点非常多,杂乱,需要耐心学习。
学不好动词,学好英语就变成是空中楼阁了。

动词可以有非常多的功能,随便举几个例子,例如:
三态的变化,分别为时态、语态、情态;
陈述句变一般疑问句与否定句;
构成主谓宾、主系表等句型;
等等等等。

动词里的概念与用法实在是太多太复杂,本文不可能完全覆盖到,
在未来的时间里,会不断的补充进来。
(本文暂不展开使役动词)

关于情态动词与助动词,网上有两种版本,一种是说它们俩是并列关系,
也有说是情态动词从属于助动词,叫情态助动词,
为此我询问了新东方的很多教研老师以及包括美国专业英语老师,
包括查阅了维基百科,
最后的结论是情态动词确实是助动词的一种,是从属关系。


1. 动词概念

动词,就是用来形容或表示各类动作、状态的词汇。
动词用来表示主语做什么或表示主语是什么或怎么样的词。

例如:
The boy runs fast.
这个男孩跑得快。
runs表示主语的行为,行为是跑。

He is a boy.
他是个男孩。
is与后面的表语a boy表示主语的状态。


2. 动词的分类

动词的分类是可以按照多个维度进行划分的。

按照功能分类:
-实义动词(Notional Verb)
-系动词(Link Verb)
-助动词(Auxiliary Verb),包含情态动词(Modal Verb)

按照是否可以直接加宾语分类:
-及物动词(Transitive Verb)
-不及物动词(Intransitive Verb)

按照是否受主语的人称和数的限制分类:
-限定动词(Finite Verb)
-非限定动词(Non-finite Verb)

按照单词数量分类:
-单字词(One-Word Verb)
-短语动词(Phrasal Verb)
-动词短语(Verbal Phrase)

2.1 按照功能分类

2.1.1 实义动词&行为动词

所谓实义动词就是有实际意义的动词,表示行为、动作或状态的词,
它的词义完整,可以单独作谓语。

两个实义动词不能直接连用。

例如:
I live in Beijing with my mother.
我和我妈妈住在北京。

It has a round face.
它有一张圆脸。

I believe i can fly.

2.1.2 系动词&联系动词

系动词亦称联系动词(Link Verb),作为系动词。

有些系动词不具词义,有些具有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,
后边必须跟表语(名词、形容词)一起构成谓语结构,
构成主系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。

关于句子成分主系表会在后面的语法文章中讲解,暂不展开。

系动词的作用是把前后两部分内容联系起来。

It tastes spicy.
尝起来辣。
tastes把形容词spicy与主语it连系了起来,spicy修饰的是it。

系动词无法跟实义动词连用,例如这句话是错误:
It can imporve is my confidence.

系动词的分类

系动词可以分为全系动词,半系动词,
完全系动词只有一个be(is,am,are),
系动词一般后面接名词或形容词。
其他的所有系动词都是半系动词。

除此之外,可以按照功能分为如下分类。

状态系动词

用来表示主语状态,只有be动词(is、am、are、was、were)。
be动词是最常见的系动词,没有之一。

be既可以是系动词,也可以是助动词,

be做系动词时,一般接名词或形容词;
be做助动词时,一般接动词,促成时态、语态;
助动词内容在后续章节中展开。

He is a teacher. 
他是一名教师。

He was a soldier two years ago.
两年前他是个士兵。

We are Chinese.
我们是中国人。

They are friendly.
他们是友好的。

She is the headteacher in the class.

We are in Grade Two this year.
今年我们在两年级。

It is not too late.

They are all very useful.

The problem is to find the right house.

感官系动词

感官系动词主要有feel,smell,sound,taste,look等。

You look good.
你看起来不错。

Mike looked like a football player.

She looked tired.
她看一去很疲劳。

I feel terrible.
我感觉很糟糕。

This kind of cloth feels very soft.
这种布手感很软。

This flower smells very sweet.
这朵花闻起来很香。

The lunch smells good.

The story sounds interesting.
这个故事听起来很有趣。

The mixture tasted horrible.
这药水太难喝了。

He seems (to be) very sad.
他看起来似乎很伤心。

变化系动词

这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,表示变化。
变化系动词主要有become,grow,turn,fall,get,go,come,run等。

He became mad after that.
自那之后,他疯了。

I become a doctor after graduating from school.
我毕业后成为了一名医生。

He became silent.

I get angry when I heard the news.
当我听到这个消息的时候我生气了。

He feels sick. His face turns white.
他感到不舒服,他的脸色变苍白了。

When spring comes,the weather gets warmer.

The weather gets warmer and the days get longer when spring comes.
春天来了,天气变得暖和些了,白天也变得较长些了。

He grew old.
他老了。

She grew rich within a short time.
她没多长时间就富了。

Mark goes green after he bought the bike.
马克买了自行车后变得更环保了。

The trees turn green in spring.

持续系动词

用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,
主要有keep,rest,remain,stay,lie,stand等等。

I go to the gym to keep healthy.
我去健身房为了保持健康。

He always kept silent at meeting.
他开会时总保持沉默。

The figure remains stable.
这个数字保持稳定。

This matter rests a mystery.
此事仍是一个谜。

终止系动词

表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove,trun out,表达"证实","变成"之意。

The rumor proved false.
这谣言证实有假。

The search proved difficult.
搜查证实很难。

His plan turned out a success.
他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果)

既是系动词又是实义动词

有些系动词也是实义动词,该动词表达实义时,有词义,可单独作谓语。

He felt ill yesterday. 
他昨天病了。
fell是系动词,后跟补足语,说明主语情况。

He fell off the ladder. 
他从梯子上摔下来。
fell是实义动词,单独作谓语。

look
看;看起来

He is looking at the picture.
他正在看这图片。行为动词

It looks beautiful.
它看上去很美丽。系动词

I felt someone touch my arm.
我感到有人碰我的手臂。行为动词

Are you felling better today than before?
你今天比以前感到好些了吗?系动词

My little brother likes to smell the apple before he eats it.
我的小弟弟喜欢在吃苹果前闻一闻。行为动词

Great! The flowers smell nice.
这些花闻起来多香啊!系动词

The letter “h” in hour is not sounded.
在hour这个词中字母h是不发音的。行为动词

The gun sounded much closer.
枪声听起来更近了。系动词

Please taste the soup.
请尝一口汤。行为动词

The soup tastes terrible.
这汤尝起来味道太差了。系动词

Do you grow rice in your country?
你们的国家种水稻吗?行为动词

It’s too late. It’s growing dark.
太迟了,天渐渐变暗了。系动词

The earth turns around the sun.
地球绕着太阳转。行为动词

When spring comes,the trees turn green and the flowers come out.
春天来了,树叶变经绿了,花儿开了。系动词

如何来辨别到底是行为动词还是系动词?
即用be替换句子中的这些动词,句子仍然成立就是系动词;
反之,不能替换的,就是行为动词。

例如:
The trees turn/are green when spring comes.
春天来临,树叶变绿。

The earth turns around the sun.
地球绕着太阳转。

这第二句句子中的turn是行为动词,意为“转动”。无法以is替换。

2.1.3 助动词

助动词协助&帮助实义动词构成谓语,帮助完成语法功能(时态、语态、疑问句、否定句等)。
助动词自身几乎没有词义,
通常与其他实义动词&主要动词连用构成谓语,不可单独做谓语。

He does not like English.
他不喜欢英语。
does是助动词,无词义;like是实义动词,有词义。

助动词的分类

基本助动词

他们几乎没有词汇意义,只有语法作用。

be(is、am、are、was、were)

be既可以是助动词也可以是系动词
be后面接的是动词则为助动词,be后面接名词或形容词则为系动词。

It is not too late.

They are all very useful.

The problem is to find the right house.

She is watching a film with her mother.
她正在跟她妈妈一起看电影。

The toy was bought by my father.
那个玩具被我爸爸买了。

He is giving a lecture.
他在作报告。

The small animals are kept in the cages.
小动物都被关在笼子里。

My coat is hanging over there near the window.

The sheep is eating the green leaves.
be doing构成进行时态

Tom is invited by me.
be+动词过去分词构成被动语态

have,has,had

have,has,had既可以是实义动词也可以是助动词。
have,has,had经常用作帮助句子构成完成时的时态,
表示我已经怎么怎么样。

I have finished my assignment before going back home.

I have become a teacher since 2010.

They have learnt English for there years.

He has made a plan.
他已经订了计划。

John has learned English for two years.

do,does,did

do,does,did既可以是实义动词也可以是助动词。
do,does,did帮助句子构成否定句,一般疑问句。

He doesn’t smoke.
I do not go for holidays in winter.
do构成否定句

Do you know much about cooking?
Do you like saving money?
do构成一般疑问句

Which art exhibition do you all want to see?
do构成特殊疑问句

Don't be late for school!
don’t构成祈使句

错误:
Tom didn’t his homework.

正确:
Tom didn’t do his homework.

情态助动词&情态动词

情态动词是一种特殊的助动词,
情态动词是一种本身有一定的词义,但不完整,
要与动词原形及其被动语态一起使用,给谓语动词增添情态色彩,
表示说话人对有关行为或事物的态度和看法,
语气,情态,认为其可能、应该或必要等。
情态动词后面必须加动词原形

表示说话人对某一动作或状态的态度或主观猜想。
表示动作,状态,猜想。

情态助动词不受主语的人称、数、时态的限制。
情态动词不能单独做谓语,必须与实义动词原形一起构成谓语。
两个情态助动词不能连用。

错误:
He will can finish it.
他将能够及时完成此事。

常见的情态动词有:
must
should,shall
ought to
can,could
will,would
may,might

具有情态动词特征:
used to
have(had,has) to

must

1.表示必须
通常表达说话者的主观意志,我必须怎样怎样,
钢铁板的意志~

You must do your homework.

We must study hard at school.

Must I get up early every day.

Students must book seats in advance.

They must know how to deal with money when they grow up.

My daughter was ill.I must take care of her.

2.表示推测
表示比较肯定的推测,你一定是谁谁谁。

He must be our English teacher.

3.否定形式
must的否定形式是mustn’t,表示禁止,语气非常强烈。

You mustn't smoke in the street or other public places.

Students mustn't talk in the exam.

Children mustn't play with fire.

常见错误:
It must be Lucy’s.It must not be Lily’s.
第一句话表示推测,而第二句话表示禁止,语义上是不对的。

4.must与have to的区别
must表示主观愿意,have to表示客观需要、被迫、不得不、主观上并不愿意。
使用must提问,可以使用have to做回答。

I must finish my assignment today.

I have to wait fortnight before I get good research result.
fortnight= 两周,14天

I lost my glasses,I nearly run out of money,but I have to buy a new one.

I’m ill,so I have to see a doctor.

We’ll have to go there by bus.

In those days he had to work every day.

have to的否定形式:
don’t / doesn’t have to表示不必要。
You don’t have to bring any snacks and refreshments.
你不必带任何的零食和点心。

I don’t have to go to the supermarket,it’s convenient.

I had a bad fever,
I have to go to the hospital.

Must I go to the dentist’s?
-No.You don’t have to.

shall,should

1.表示应该
Students should study hard.

You should call him.

You should leave

I shall cook the supper myself.

2.表示推测
They all should be there by now.

3.表示将来时态
I shall cook the supper myself.

may,might

1.表示允许、许可、可以
表示允许或征询对方的许可,是比较委婉的表达。
You may go now.

May I know your phone number?

You may take a cab to school.

You may watch TV on Sundays.

2.表示猜测、可能

It may snow next week.

Our professor may come to the office tomorrow.

The teacher may not be in the office.

3.may和might的用法
可以理解成may=might,might是may的过去式,
might表示猜测时可能性会更低一些,might是may的更礼貌形式。

Might I have one of your pictures?

can,could

1.表示能,会,能够、能力、可能性

I can see the birds over there.

The government can help the poor to reduce financial burden.

He can speak at least four foreign languages.

You can not do your homework.

He comes from England ,so he can speak English very well.

He can do his homework last night.

can的否定形式为can’t= can not 表示否定猜测,表示一定不。

He can't be our office manager.

That can't be true.

The housing price in China is extremely high,I can't afford it.
afford,支付,只能用来否定句。

2.表示请求、得到允许
一般用在疑问句中,can的语气比较强烈,
可以用could使语气变得委婉,显得有礼貌。

Uncle Wang said we could borrow his boat.

Can you show me the way to school?

Can you throw away the household waste?

3.can与could的区别
could表示can的过去式,以及语气的缓和或请求允许。

Could you please open the door?

He could play the guitar when he was six.

Could you tell me where I can get hot water?

Could I see your ID card?
表示许可或要求,且语气更礼貌

will,would

I will go abroad to study economics.

The government will give citizens enough financial support.

Will you go to university next year?

He will be eighteen years old next Sunday.
will+动词原形构成将来时态

used to

used to表示过去常常做某事情,但现在不干了,后常跟动词原形。

I used to take subway to school.

还有一种常见的表达方式是be used to,
词义发生改变,并不是情态动词,表示习惯于做某事,
一般跟名词或动名词。

I am used to the cold weather.

He is used to the foreign food.

练习,通过词性进行判断
I ___ drink boiled water.
-used to

We ___ the spicy food in SiChuan.
-are used to

Students ___ watch news at 5pm.
-used to

My parents ___ the naughty corgi dog.
-are used to

半助动词

在功能上介乎主动词和助动词之间的一类结构,称为半助动词。

常见的半助动词有:
be about to
be due to
be going to
be likely to
be meant to
be obliged to
be supposed to
be willing to
have to
seem to
be unable to
be unwilling to等。

细节暂不展开。

既是助动词又是实义动词

Do you have a car?

Did you have a good time?
-yes, we did.

How many children do you have?

She doesn’t have any pets.

I didn’t have my credit card wih me.

I have two books in my beadroom.
上述这些话中have不是助动词,have是实义动词。


延伸阅读:
have,当实义动词时表示拥有,通常可接got(get的过去分词),
有时候甚至可以省略助动词have,
形成i got,he got等用法。

You’ve got / You got a nice sweater.

We are having a meeting.
我们正在开会。实义动词

He has gone to New York.
他已去纽约。助动词

We are having a meeting.
我们正在开会。实义动词

He has gone to New York.
他已去纽约。助动词

常见错误:
第一个do是助动词,第二个do是实义动词。

错误:
Tom didn’t his homework.
正确:
Tom didn’t do his homework.

助动词的作用

构成时态

He is singing.
他在唱歌。(现在进行时)

He has got married.
他已结婚。(现在完成时)

A dog is running after a cat.
一条狗正在追逐一只猫。(现在进行时)

He will be eighteen years old next Sunday.
他下周日就十八岁了。(一般将来时)

构成被动语态

He was sent to England.
他被派往英国。

构成疑问句

Do you like college life?
你喜欢大学生活吗?

Did you study English before you came here?
你来这儿之前学过英语吗?

Did he have any milk and bread for his breakfast?
他早餐喝牛奶、吃面包吗?
did表示一般过去时,并提到句首用构成一般疑问句。

Which art exhibition do you all want to see?

构成否定句

助动词与否定副词not连用

I don’t like him.
我不喜欢他。

He does not speak English well.
他英语讲得不好。
does表示一般现在时,并与not连用构成否定句。

构成祈使句

Don’t be late for school.

加强语气

Do come to the party tomorrow evening.
明天晚上一定来参加晚会。

He did know that.
他的确知道那件事。

They do have nice daughters.
他们的确有个不错的女儿。

2.2 按照是否可以直接加宾语分类

2.2.1 及物动词vt

及物动词是指动词的后面需要使用宾语使其意义完整的动词,
动词的后面需要跟一个动作的承受者(宾语),才能使句子意思完整。
及物动词有被动语态。

像:“我看”,这句话,我看什么呢?
这句话句子意思不完整。

That dog makes the boy happy.
那条狗是这个孩子高兴起来。

I enjoyed the book very much.

He always leaves his bag at school.

The governments construct many buildings.

She is holding a book.

I went shopping yesterday.

He likes bananas.

Give me some ink,please.
请给我一些墨水。

She is holding a book.
她正在拿着一本书。

I went shopping yesterday.
我昨天去购物了。

He likes bananas.
他喜欢香蕉。

If you have any questions,you can raise your hands.
如果你们有问题,你们可以举手。

2.2.2 不及物动词vi

不及物动词后面不需要动作的承受者(宾语),
单词本身意义已经很完整了,句子意思完整了。

不及物动词后面不能直接加宾语,也没有被动语态。

如果需要加动作的承受者,那么需要不及物动词+介词。

注意:不及物动词有时可以加上副词或介词,构成短语动词, 相当于一个及物动词,这种情况下后面可以接宾语,例如:...worry about it。

I live in Beijing.
我住在北京。

Birds fly quickly.
鸟飞走了。

I want to see a doctor.
我想看医生。
want既可以做vi也可以做vt,在这里是vi。

The last bus left.
最后一辆公交车离开了

He works hard.
他工作努力。

I will come tomorrow.
我明天会来。

The train left just now.
火车刚刚离开。

My watch stopped.
我的表停了。

Jack runs faster than Mike.
杰克跑步比迈克要快些。

Please look at the blackboard and listen to me.
请看黑板,听我说。

2.2.3 既是不及物动词又是及物动词

许多动词可用作及物动词,也可用作不及物动词。
在及物动词与不及物动词转换的同时,词义也可能发生变化。

He always drinks tea in the morning.及物,喝
Her husband never drinks.不及物,喝酒

Who is going to speak at the meeting?
谁打算在会上发言?
speak,不及物

Few people outside China speak Chinese.
在中国外很少人讲汉语。
speak,及物

The guy stopped that car. 及物
The car stopped 不及物

We began the meeting ten minutes ago. 及物
May I begin now? 不及物

He walks the dog every morning. 及物
He is walking now. 不及物

Wash your hands before dinner. 及物
Does this cloth wash well? 不及物

She can dance and sing.
她能唱歌又能跳舞。不及物

She can sing many English songs.
她能唱好多首英文歌曲。及物

2.3 按照是否受主语的人称和数的限制分类

2.3.1 限定动词

She sings very well.
她唱得很好。
sing受主语she的限制,故用第三人称单数形式sings。

2.3.2 非限定动词&非谓语动词

She wants to learn English well.
她想学好英语。
to learn不受主语she的限制,没有词形变化,是非限定动词。

英语中共有三种非限定动词,分别是:
动词不定式(Infinitive)、动名词(Gerund)、分词(Participle)。

也有人把非限定动词称为非谓语动词,说白了就是不能充当谓语。

动词只要前面有to,或者加了ing,那它就失去了做谓语的权利,不能单独做谓语。

非限定动词的否定形式:
not +不定式
not + 动名词
not + 现在分词

一个正确的简单句,一定只有一套主谓结构,但如果句中有多个动作并存,则需要保证一个动作是谓语动词,其他的动作都是非谓语动词。

I like to lie in the bed reading book written by famous authors and listening to some music.

doing 与 to to 的区别:
doing表示动作的经常性、习惯性。
to do表示动作的一次性、未来性、目的性。

I study IELTS to go overseas.
学雅思的目的是为了出国。

I like watching films.
我喜欢看电影,表示习惯性。

I like to watch film in a while.
过一会我要去看一场电影。

I’m going to watch a film tomorrow.
be going to表示将要,将来

I am to watch a film in a while.
be to do表示将来,立即、马上,发生的更快。

2.3.2.1 动词不定式

动词不定式由to+动词原型构成。
to do经常表示目的。

He began to work as a tourist guide.
began是谓语动词。

I come here to borrow some reference books.
come是谓语动词,不定式做目的状语,后面的文章会讲。

注意:not必须位于不定式之前
He expects you not to say anything.

时态主动被动
一般式to doto be done
完成式to have doneto have been done

He wants John to rent a replacement vehicle.
When would you like your car to be ready?

He ordered the prisoners to be freed.
He was ordered to pay at once.

be used to doing sth
习惯做某事,这里的to是介词,需要接doing,
并不是传统的动词不定式要接动词原形。

2.3.2.2 动名词

需要它是什么词性,它就是什么词性,
需要是动词就是动词,需要是名词就是名词。
一般情况下,动名词做主语,谓语需要变三单形式。

时态主动被动
一般式doingbeing done
完成式having donehaving been done

have 后不能直接接动ing形式
介词后面接动词的话,不能接动词原型,要加动词ing

Parents do not know whether youngsters can improve language skills by studying abroad.

可以接动词ing的单词:
hate doing sth
enjoy doing sth
like doing sth

2.3.2.3 分词

分词包括现在分词和过去分词。

时态主动被动
一般式doingbeing done
完成式having donehaving been done
现在分词

现在分词一般是动词+ing。

I like watching film.

过去分词

过去分词一般是动词的过去式,动词+ed,但也有不规则变化。

2.4 按照单词数量分类

2.4.1 单字词

The English language contains many phrasal verbs and verbal phrases.
英语里有许多短语动词和动词短语。

2.4.2 短语动词

短语动词的构成基本有下列几种:
动词+副词,如:black out;
动词+介词,如:look into;
动词+副词+介词,如:look forward to。

Turn off the radio.
把收音机关上。

Students should learn to look up new words in dictionaries.
学生们学会查字典。

look for = search
寻找
The family called the police to help them look for their son,who was lost.

look after = care for
照顾
The parents asked the baby-sitter to look after their children while they went out.

look at = examine
检查,检阅
When they arrived at the hospital,the doctor look at his broken arm.

look over = check
看一下
The students asked his tutor to look over his essay for mistakes.

look through = scan
扫描,浏览
The class sometimes look through the newspaper for information about their local town.

The young ought to take care of the old.
年轻人应照料老人。


3. 动词的形式

动词有五种形态,分别是:
原形(Original Form)、
第三人称单数形式(Singular Form in Third Personal)、
过去式(Past Form)、
过去分词(Past Participle)、
现在分词(Present Participle)。

这里涉及到时态的知识点,后续文章会有专门讲解。

主语是三单形式时,谓语动词要变形。

原型过去式过去分词三单现在分词
be(is,am,are)was,werebeenisbeing
dodiddonedoesdoing
havehadhadhashaving
gosawseenseesseeing
seewentgonegoesgoing
taketooktakentakestaking
makemademademakesmaking
readreadreadreadsreading
pullpulledpulledpullspulling
drivedrovedrivendrivesdriving
writewrotewrittenplaysplaying
playplayedplayedplaysplaying

3.1 第三人称单数

第一人称:我、我们;
第二人称:你、你们;
第三人称:他、她、它、他们、她们、它们;

第三人称单数:他,她,它,不可数名词也算作单数处理。

  1. 可数名词单数做主语
    The program becomes very popular now.

  2. 不可数名词做主语
    Water is an important resource in the world.

Bottled water is very convenient.

  1. 动名词做主语
    Doing sports regularly helps me keep fit.

Sending gifts is a kind of social etiquette.

Playing tennis is my favorite sport.

  1. 不定式做主语
    To make attractive TV programs is not easy.

  2. 单数代词做主语
    包括:it,she,he,this,that,someone,somebody,anybody,nobody,everybody,单个人名等等。

It is my favorite action moive.

This is a horror film.

She is a student.

Nobody comes to the library,because the aid conditioning system doesn’t work.

Somebody is singing outside the classroom.

Tom is my classmate.

第三人称单数简称“三单”。

此处介绍一个语法现象叫,主谓一致。
句子中谓语动词需要跟随主语名词的变化而变化,保持主谓一致。
主语是三单,谓语动词需要变成三单(不考虑时态语态的情况下)。
主语是复数,谓语动词需要变成原型(不考虑时态语态的情况下)。

句子成分的知识点会在后面的博客中介绍。

一般现在时主语是第三人称单数,谓语动词后要加s或es,
其变化规则与名词变复数的方法大体相同。

规则变化

直接加s
eat -> eats
work -> works
write -> writes
say -> says
sleep -> sleeps
take -> takes
want -> wants
live -> lives
play -> plays
lose -> loses
make -> makes
stay -> stays
read -> reads

以s,x,sh,ch结尾

后加es

guess -> guesses
mix -> mix
finish -> finishes
catch -> catches
fix -> fixes
dress -> dresses
carry -> carries
push -> pushes
teach -> teaches
wash -> washes
watch -> watches

以辅音字母加y结尾

改y为i再加es

fly -> flies
try -> tries
study -> studies
cry -> cries
carry -> carries

不规则变化

have-has
be -> is
go-goes
do-does

3.2 分词

动词的分词分为两种:现在分词、过去分词,这两种分词都可以做修饰成分,
用来修饰名词,起形容词的作用。

在英语中至少有一半的修饰成分是由动词里的分词来承担的。

单个分词作定语要前置,分词短语做定语要后置。

accepted attitude
人人都可以接受的态度

Unidentified Flying Object
不明飞行物,不能鉴别的+正在飞行的

developed country
发达国家

developing country
发展中国家

fallen leaves/star/empire
落叶
陨落的星星
堕落的帝国

faded memory
记忆模糊

a retired teacher
退休老师

a married woman
已婚妇女

Making sounds unrelated to language

Research carried out by scientists in the United States has shown that the proportion of people over 65 suffering from the most common age-ralated medical problems is xxx and that the speed of this change is xxx.

Increasingly,voices are being raised in India and abroad,questioning the wisdom and warning of the consequences of sending such a massive number of new cars onto the roads.

现在分词

直接加ing

study -> studying
play-> playing
do-> doing
work-> working

去e加ing

以不发音的字母e结尾的动词,去e加ing。
如write->writing
move -> moving
make -> making
increase -> increasing
become -> becoming

重读闭音节

重读闭音节结尾的动词,末尾只有一个辅音字母,双写结尾字母再加ing。
(以一个元音字母和一个辅音结尾的重读音节结尾的动词)

begin -> beginning
sit -> sitting
run -> running
jog -> jogging
chat -> chatting
shop -> shopping
swim -> swimming
plan -> planning
beg -> begging
ban -> banning
get -> getting
put -> putting

以ie结尾

以ie结尾,把ie变成y加ing
lie -> lying
die -> dying
tie -> tying

过去分词

未完待续
被动语态相关

3.3 过去式

过去式变形

直接加ed

ask -> asked
call -> called
work -> worked
watch -> watched
look -> looked
sound -> sounded
want -> wanted
pick -> picked
plant -> planted
start -> started
help -> helped

不发音的e结尾

只加d

love -> loved
dance -> danced
provide -> provided
taste -> tasted
smile -> smiled
like -> liked
hate -> hated
hope -> hoped
change -> changed
decide -> decided
surprise -> surprised
provide -> provided

辅音字母加y结尾

把y改i加ed

try -> tried
study -> studied
cry -> cried
worry -> worried
carry -> carried
hurry -> hurried
apply -> applied
bury -> buried
fry -> fried

元音字母加y结尾

直接加ed

stay -> stayed
play -> played
enjoy -> enjoyed
employ -> employed
pray -> prayed
obey -> obeyed
destroy -> destroyed
annoy -> annoyed

元音字母和辅音结尾的重读音节结尾

先双末尾一个字母,再加ed。

drop -> dropped
fit -> fitted
stop -> stopped
step -> stepped
permit -> permitted
plan -> planned
admit -> admitted
refer -> referred
prefer -> preferred
trap -> trapped

不规则变形

do -> did
come -> came
speak -> spoke
make -> made
go -> went
know -> knew
forget -> forgot
sit -> sat
am -> was
is -> was
are -> were
sing -> sang
eat -> ate
wear -> wore
give -> gave
meet -> met
see -> saw
become -> became
begin -> began
blow -> blew
break -> broke
bring -> brought
build -> built
burn -> burnt, burned
buy -> bought
can -> could
catch -> caught
choose -> chose
come -> came
draw -> drew
dream -> dreamed, dreamt
drink -> drank
drive -> drove
eat -> ate
fall -> fell
feed -> fed
feel -> felt
find -> found
fly -> flew
freeze -> froze
get -> got
grow -> grew
have -> had
hear -> heard
hold -> held
keep -> kept
know -> knew
lay -> laid
lead -> led
learn -> learnt, learned
leave -> left
lend -> lent
lie -> lay
lie -> lied
light -> lit
light -> lighted
lose -> lost
may -> might
mean -> meant
pay -> paid
quit -> quitted, quit
ride -> rode
ring -> rang
rise -> rose
run -> ran
say -> said
see -> saw
sell -> sold
send -> sent
shake -> shook
shall -> should
shine -> shone, shined
show -> showed
sleep -> slept
smell -> smelt, smelled
speak -> spoke
spell -> spelt, spelled
spend -> spent
stand -> stood
swim -> swam
take -> took
teach -> taught
tell -> told
think -> thought
throw -> threw
wake -> waked, woke
wear -> wore
will -> would
win -> won
work -> worked
write -> wrote

过去式不变

read -> read
put -> put
cost -> cost
cut -> cut
beat -> beat
cost -> cost
cut -> cut
hit -> hit
hurt -> hurt
let -> let
must -> must
ought -> ought
put -> put
read -> read
set -> set

过去式发音

[t]

liked [laɪkt]
walked [wɔːkt]
danced [dɑːnst]
watched [wɒtʃt]

[d]

loved [lʌvd]
studied [ˈstʌdid]
stayed [steɪd]
travelled [ˈtrævld]

[ɪd]

started [ˈstɑːtɪd]
wanted [ˈwɒntɪd]
hated [ˈheɪtɪd]
visited [ˈvɪzɪtɪd]


总结

be(is,am,are,was,were)动词只能做系动词或助动词。

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