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# 前言

本文全部基于学术类雅思，而并非移民类雅思。

首先雅思考试中包含许多【学术英语】的知识点，
【学术英语】与我们一般常见的英语还是有很大区别的，
【学术英语】较难，同时【学术英语】的词汇也很难啃。

备考雅思是一件非常非常痛苦的事情，尤其是那些对英语不感冒的童鞋，
因为雅思学到后面，是一坨庞大的知识体系树，并且很枯燥，
至少5000+的雅思词汇量还有各种语法、英式发音、吞音与连读、连接词、地道的英语表达、
听说读写四个维度等等等等，真的是需要你对英语有兴趣，并且肯吃苦，
天天不断的去练习，去肌肉记忆，去适应。

尤其是口语与写作，并不是你能写出来能说出来就行了，
而是按照考官的意愿去写去说，内容要符合采分点才行，
并且雅思的考点与知识点五花八门、包罗万象。

我见过有英语专八的童鞋听力阅读全部是9分满分，
但写作口语万年卡在6.5分，也见过听力阅读是7分，
但写作口语万年卡在5.5分。

如果条件允许，建议使用PTE或多邻国来代替雅思，
会帮你节省大量的时间、精力、钱。

有人把雅思比喻成渣男，无论你对他付出多少时间精力，
到头来他都不会对你好，而PTE与多邻国相对而言是暖男，
你对他好，他就会对你有回报。

https://yangminghan.blog.csdn.net/article/details/100116949

阅读本文需要英语基础良好，请务必先阅读此篇文章
https://yangminghan.blog.csdn.net/article/details/96651593

# 1. 什么是雅思

因此雅思考试中充斥着大量英澳文化（英音和澳音），
口语考官也都是来自英联邦国家。

英式英语跟美式英语是有区别的，学习雅思的时候应该以英式英语为主。

## 雅思考试的内容

A类比G类更难，两者的差别只是在阅读和写作上。

在输入项基础扎实的情况下，再去提升自己的输出项，
这里需要顺序，先输入、再输出，
先练听力与阅读，再练口语与写作，厚积薄发。

考试顺序为：听力->阅读->写作，前3个考试必须是在同1天，
至于口语考试安排在单独时间（可预约），
有可能是在同一天，也可能不是。

由于笔试（听力、阅读、写作）和口语有可能不是同一天考，
所以我们可以把时间错开，实现有针对性的复习与备考，
笔试考完你还有2天时间考口语，那这2天你就可以只突击口语。

对于输出项，你英语的好坏和表达方式是其次，
关键是你的性格、思维方式以及是否善与表达，
有的同学本身就不爱说话，不爱思考，不爱写作，
那英语再好也输出不出来东西。

## 雅思考试的形式

如果字写的丑但打字飞快，推荐机考，写字丑对写作影响很大。

机考每个同学的题都不一样，所以理论上你没办法去抄隔壁同学的答案。

考试当天需要带身份证、准考证，准考证打印2份，
分别用于笔试和口试。

## 雅思评分标准

7分就算是高分了，很多native speaker考雅思都不一定能考出高分，

9Expert userHas fully operational command of the language:appropriate,accurate and fluent with complete understanding.
8Very good userHas fully operational command of the language:with only occasional unsystematic inaccuracies and inappropriacies.Misunderstandings may occur in unfamiliar situations.Handles complex detailed argumentation well.
7Good userHas operational command of the language,though with occasional inaccuracies,inappropriacies and misunderstandings in some situations.Generally handles complex language well and understands detailed resoning.
6Competent userHas generally effective command of the language despite some inaccuracies,inappropriacies and misunderstandings.Can use and understand fairly complex language,particularly in familiar situations.
5Modest userHas partial command of the language,coping with overrall meaning in most situations,though is likely to make many mistakes. Should be able to handle basic communication in own field.
4Limited userBasic competence is limited to familiar situations.Has frequent problems in understanding and expression. Is not able to use complex language.
3Extremely limited userConveys and understands only general meaning in very familiar situations.Frequent breakdowns in communication occur.
2Intermittent userNo real communication is possible except for the most basic information using isolated words or short formulae in familiar situations and to meet immediate needs.Has great difficulty understanding spoken and written English.
1Non userEssentially has no ability to use the language beyond possibly a few isolated words.
0Did not attempt the testNo assessable information provided.

平均分如果是5.75分（6,6,6,5），那么你的总分就是6分

应对6.5(6.0)的一个最低配打法是：
阅读6.5，听力6.5，写作6.0，口语6.0。

听、说、读、写每一科都有4个评分标准，
如果某个评分标准分数低，那么会拉低整个这一科的分数，
例如你的口语语法（语法是四项评分标准之一）分数低，
例如语法是5，其他是6，那么不好意思，你的口语得分不会上6，
只能是5.5，其中一项低分数会拉低整个口语的分数，
拿口语、写作的6分最低配打法必须是4项评分标准最低是6，详见下文。

# 2. 准备工作

## 学不动的时候怎么办？

https://yangminghan.blog.csdn.net/article/details/82682959

如果看着字幕听着英语，那就等于没听。

## 如何花钱？

### 报班

5.5分班毕业后，然后直接跳到你想要的分数班，

5.5分班老师讲Sport，那7分班老师也讲Sport，

### 用收费版牛津高阶APP查单词

强烈不推荐使用如下APP或网站查词：
百度翻译、金山词霸&爱词霸、有道词典、百词斩等等。

尤其是百度翻译里无论是单词的解释还是翻译的句子都是很恶心的，
真的很烂，千万不要用，会误导萌新玩家，让大家走弯路。

# 3. 通用基础

## 3.1 词汇 VOCABULARY

短时间可以冲到6分以及6分以上的有效办法就是多背单词。
对于专业性、学术性强的单词不用背，背了你也记不住，例如："细胞壁"、"代糖"。

这些级别的生词几乎不会影响你做阅读与听力，你知道知道它大概是个什么东西就好。

### 3.1.1 如何背单词

掌握单词要结合上下文语境，单词背会后要及时的在口语和写作中使用，
如果没有使用，那约等于白背，要学以致用，学了就必须用出来。

雅思词汇，生词来源绝不是一本单词书或者某个APP，然后从A-Z的背，
这样效率很低，需要按场景去背高频词汇，
生词的来源应该是雅思题上的，
例如：阅读、听力中的原文，口语、写作中的思路。

https://yangminghan.blog.csdn.net/article/details/96651593

### 3.1.2 如何猜测&推断生词含义

我们可以通过若干技巧（词根词缀、词性等）和上下文含义来猜出其大概意思。

The bathysphere allowed scientists to explor deeper areas of the ocean bed.

（allow sb to do sth.）

n，球形潜水装置（很古老，很早以前被淘汰）

Aquaculture has developed significantly over the last 50 years,and now provides 40% of the world’s fish.

A historic descent to the ocean floor has revealed the existence of mysterious marine creatures that look like huge prawns.

### 3.1.3 词汇丰富程度

#### 词汇搭配 Collocation

这些组合在一起的短语不需要遵守语法规则，
需要注重常见的词汇搭配，不要张冠李戴。

"狮子叫"的表达是lions roar，而不是lions shout。
"打电话"的表达是make a phone call，而不是do a phone call。

He was guilty of making a crime.

He was guilty of committing a crime.

black tea

brown sugar

##### v + n

[learn/study]后面只能加单一的学科，不能说[learn/study] knowledge。

[obtain/gain/acquire] knowledge

#### 同义替换（超级无敌重要）

在雅思考试中，无论听说读写，都充斥着大量的同义替换，
同义替换也成为雅思考试中最最最重要的考点，没有之一，是拿高分的基础。

例如：词性替换、同义词（synonyms）近义词替换、形容词变定语从句等等。
我们在背单词的时候，也需要注重同义词近义词的积累，
这样可以有效的避免用词重复，展现词汇丰富。

1. 同义词的替换；
2. 抽象概括，听力配对题考的就是这个，抽象名词在原文中变成具体的信息；
3. 句式变化，变换句子结构；

pollution与contamination都可以翻译成"污染"，

同时，但也不要故弄玄虚，不用特意找一个偏难怪的词来打动考官，
词汇使用并不是越复杂越好，往往考生没办法理解这些偏难怪单词的真正含义，
可能会出现："我的狗驾崩了"这种窘境。

依赖、依靠depend on、rely on

生病disease,illness,sicknessmedical problem,ailment,complaint

大概,大约about,aroundestimated, approximately（写作，7分词汇）,roughly（口语）

喜欢,热衷于likebe keen on,be a big fan of(口语),be fond of,obsess,be fanatical about

繁殖breed/breeding,mate/mating,reproduce/reproduction
##### 名词

优势,优点,好处advantage,benefitpro
缺点disadvantage,drawbackdefect,flaw,con

名人famous peoplecelebrity

person/peopleindividual/individuals,citizens,the general public,local community

速度speedrate
car,vehicleautomobile

大城市,大都市big citymetropolis [məˈtrɒpəlɪs],megacity,major city
国家,政府state,government

##### 动词

rent,hire
像likeresemble

##### 形容词

昂贵的expensivecostly,pricy(英式)
便宜的cheapeconomical(比较抠,所以是cal)
适当的、合适的suitableappropriate

便利的convenienthandy
特别的particular,special(表示特殊含义),unique,differentdistinctive

可口的deliciousmouth-watering(不加程度副词),tasty,yummy(小孩)

有趣的，好玩的interestingentertaining,amusing,terrific sense of humour

###### 干掉very

very是一个非常LOW的词汇，尽量不要用。

非常美丽very beautifulgorgeous

非常无聊very boringdull

非常冷very coldfreezing
非常可爱very cuteadorable
非常贵very expensivecostly

非常逗比very funnyhilarious [hɪˈleəriəs]

非常必要very necessaryessential
频繁very oftenfrequently

非常确定very surecertain

##### 较低概率被替换的词汇

在雅思阅读与听力考试中，有一些专有名词一般是同义替换换不走的，
或者说即使被替换掉也很容易被发现的，
首字母大写的专有名词比较显眼。

on a/the，介冠搭配，80%不会换。

1980s -> 80s
MTA -> Metro Transit Authority
17th century -> 16xx
10% -> 1/10
20% -> 1/5
50% -> halves,halved,half,50 percent
2倍 -> twice,double,2 fold
3倍 -> triple,3 fold

porcelain,encyclopaedias,psychiatrist,orbital,prefrontal,cortex等。

##### 写作小作文词汇同义替换

观点opinion,viewpoint,ideaposition,perspective,standpoint

展示showillustrate[ˈɪləstreɪt],give statistics,represent,[present/give/provide] information about,indicate,reveal（注意时态）

数据informationfigure (for),data

### 3.1.5 熟词僻义

addressn，地址n，演讲、演说；v，解决、处理
approachv，接近n，方法
bookn，书v，预定
canv，能n，易拉罐、罐头
chairn，椅子n，主席
court法庭、法律球场
coachn，教练n，大巴车
dramaticallyadv，戏剧性地adv，剧烈地、显著地
dramaticadj，戏剧性的adj，剧烈的、引人注目的
fineadj，好的n，罚款
favourite喜欢的比赛/工作中最有希望获得胜利的人
interview面试采访
press按、压新闻、媒体、出版社
plann，计划n，平面图
policy政策保险单
playv，玩n，剧、比赛
plantn，植物n，发电厂、工厂
secure保护、获得安全坚固的
sentence句子判决、审判
studyn，v，学习、研究n，书房
stable稳定的马厩
strike打击罢工
speech演讲说话
status状态地位
volume音量数量
ring指环环形竞技场
wood木材树林

#### 外表具有欺骗性的单词

respective/respectively尊敬的分别的，各自的
invaluable不珍贵的极其珍贵的、无价之宝
indifferent相同的冷漠的，不关心的

#### 用词禁忌

run             千万别用在跑步上，跑步一般用go或jogging，run通常表示被迫的跑，例如被狗追。
thin多用于小动物，很少用于描述人的躯体，可以用slender，slim（形容女性）等词代替。
play当play做动词表示"玩"的时候，在美式英语是完全ok的，但在英联邦国家中，play有have sex的意思，因此请慎用。

laid-backinactivelazy
slimthinskinny

### 3.1.6 单词发音

https://yangminghan.blog.csdn.net/article/details/100188088

#### 一个单词有两种发音

suit[su:t][sju:t]

#### 两个单词有一种发音

aloud、allowed[əˈlaʊd]
band、banned[bænd]
bass、base[beɪs]
fourth、forth[fɔːθ]
higher、hire[ˈhaɪə]
I’ll、aisle[aɪl]
pair、pear[peə]
sight、site、cite[saɪt]
their、there[ðeə]
he’ll、heal、heel[hiːl]
wait、weight[weight]
you’re、your[jʊr]
flower、flour[ˈflaʊə]
write、right[raɪt]

some letters writing by our hands.

#### 容易混淆的发音

suite[swi:t][sju:t]
weary[ˈwɪəri][ˈweri]
main[meɪn][maɪn]
invite[ɪnˈvaɪt][ɪnˈveit]
directly[dəˈrektli][diˈrektli]
access[ˈækses][ˈəkses]
observe[əbˈzɜːv][ɔbˈzɜːv]
native[ˈneɪtɪv][ˈnætɪv]

#### 吞音、连读

honestly[ˈɒnɪstli]吞[t]
firstly[ˈfɜːstli]吞[t]
february[ˈfebruəri]吞[ə]

bus-stop
Tower-of London

#### 英音与美音

##### 带不带[r]

英音没有r，没有儿话音，舌头不翘起来，美音有r，舌头翘起来。

apartment[əˈpɑ:tmənt][əˈpɑrtmənt]
park[pɑ:k][pɑ:rk]
waiter[ˈweɪtə][ˈweɪtər]
work[wɜ:k][wɜr:k]
park[pɑ:k][pɑ:rk]

idea
[aɪˈdɪə]

famous
[ˈfeɪməs]

cinema
[ˈsɪnəmə]

##### [ɑː]变[æ]

dance[dɑːns][dæns]
plant[plɑ:nt][plænt]
castle[ˈkɑ:sl][ˈkæsl]
passport[ˈpɑ:spɔ:t][ˈpæspɔrt]
##### tory的发音

dormitory[ˈdɔ:mətri][ˈdɔ:rmətɔ:ri]
factory[ˈfæktri][ˈfæktəri]
history[ˈhɪstri][ˈhɪstəri]
##### 不规则变化

advertisement[ədˈvɜ:tɪsmənt][ˌædvərˈtaɪzmənt]
schedule[ˈʃedju:l][ˈskedʒul]
leisure[ˈleʒə][ˈliʒər]
mobile[ˈməʊbaɪl][ˈmoʊbl]
of[ɒv][əv]

### 3.1.7 单词词性

a/an _____，接单数可数名词，an接元音音素的名词、a接辅音音素开头的名词
a number of _____，接可数名词复数；
how _____，接副词；
the _____，一般接名词；
prep _____，一般接名词；
in order to _____，接动词原形；
prior to _____，接名词或动名词；
vt _____，一般接名词；
vi _____，一般接副词；
XXX and _____ 或 XXX or _____，并列关系，词性一致、单复数一致；

_____ n，一般用形容词或名词；
_____ be，一般用名词；
_____ kilometres，用数字；
_____ kg，用数字；
_____ hours，用数字；

### 3.1.8 单词的特性

#### 3.1.8.1 带有时间属性的单词

Before：当下时间之前，表示过去。
After：当下时间之后，表示将来或引导结果。
At the same time：与当下时间相同。
Transition from one stage to another：引导层次以及层次之间的转换&递进。

BeforeAfterAt the same timeTransition from one stage to another
initiallyeventuallyduringmoving on to
previouslyfinallysimultaneouslynext
formerin the endwhenthe next phase/step
priorultimately

phase [feɪz]
n，阶段、时期

#### 3.1.8.2 表示逻辑关系的单词&[词组/连接词/关系词]

Do you play any sports?
-I always go jogging in the morning,
also I am big fan of table tennis,
but I am busy with my work,
therefore I have no time playing.

meanwhile

with regard to=in terms of，就…而言。

to be more specific

##### 并列关系

and
or
also也
with
as well as此外,还,也,和…一样
in addition (to)另外，此外
furthermore另外，此外
both…and…
apart from除…外,还包括
associate with和…相关，跟…联系到一起
relate to与…有关
involve with与…有关
either…or
not only...but also...不但...而且...
##### 递进关系

also并且，另外，也
besides此外，况且（不够学术）
moreovermoreover=additionally
what’s more
apart from
... ,which causes the consequence that ...引起的后果是，多用于不好的后果，the consequence that后面加一个完整句子可构成同位语从句
… ,meaning that …意味着
… ,as a result of which …因此=由于前一句的这件事
… so that …从而

It is difficult for children to distinguish right from wrong,as a result of which they are likely to imitate the harmful information blindly.

There are a few opportunities for employees working at home to communicate with others face to face,meaning that it is difficult for them to learn how to socialize or cooperate with others.

##### 转折关系

but但是
however不过，可是，然而，无论如何
A rather than B是A而不是B
nevertheless然而
whereas然而
yet目前
refute反驳
despite,although,though,even if,even though尽管

Owning a home rather than renting one is very important for people.

Then we visited another city and stayed at a famous hotel but it wasn’t very nice.

##### 因果关系

... because/as/for/since ...因为，as后面接人的时候，表示"作为..."
so/hence/consequently所以
therefore因此，所以
as a [result/consequence] of由于
cause (by) …引起，表示影响
… for the reason that …因为
… in that …因为
lead to .../contribute to/result in引起，导致，致使，表示影响
result from由于
(be) due to ...由于，引出原因
thanks to由于
... so that ...因此，所以
attribute to归因于
… on the ground that …考虑到
… ,thus doing sth …因此
by doing sth, …

… because …，用because来承接原因，比2个单独的简单句好。

It was a special trip for me because I travelled without my parents for the first time.

The construction of parks could expand the green space in cities,thus reducing/alleviating the air pollution.

Computer games can cause health problems.

It can lead to eye strain.

Muscle strain can be due to repetitive hand movements.

##### 比较关系

more更
the most最
increasingly越来越多地
(much) more更多的
less更少的
as…as/same/the same as ……相同&一样
like/be similar in/resemble像…
different from …不同于…
in comparison with …同…比较起来
while …然而（比较关系较弱）
in contrast
##### 否定关系

without没有，无，不需
lack缺乏
never永不，绝不，从不
no
not
no longer不再
rather than ...与其...倒不如...
far from绝非，完全不
neither…nor…既不…也不…

rather than using the front door they should park their van round the back and use the stage door there.

##### 举例关系

for example例如
for instance例如
such as例如
in a way of
in this way

be + 方位介词 + n.

### 3.1.9 单词拼写

#### 英式与美式

-our(美)-or(英)
colourcolor
favouritefavorite
fourtyforty

#### 容易用错/拼错的单词

environment容易漏掉n，是onment，不是nment
benefitbenefit是名词，形容是beneficial，it is beneficial …
beneficial容易写成ical
according容易写成acorrding
commercial容易写成ical
relevant容易写成rela
concentrateconcentrate是动词，concentration是名词，put one’s concentration on
waiter容易双写t
garden容易写成dern
scientist容易写成cist
developing容易双写p

## 3.2 语法 GRAMMER

语法在短期提升的性价比略高于词汇。

需要长短句相结合，不要一味的追求长难句，这样不符合英文表述习惯，
尽量避免成语、习语、名人名言，可能自己的语言水平达不到。

### 3.2.1 语法多样性与准确性

Grammatical Range and Accuracy(GRA)，语法多样性与准确性。

语法丰富性清单（保证正确的前提下出现的越多越好，需要自己review）

1. 主谓宾+主系表，不要用的特别多，保持在30%-40%。
2. 被动语态，口语与写作6分需要被动语态，不要随缘，不要想到了就写想不到就不写，被动语态体现出文字客观、真实的一种语法结构，越正式越书面的内容使用被动语态的频率越高，用被动比主动要好，例如：People who change their job frequently will be thought to be disloyal by employers.
3. There be句型，雅思考官会把There be当成是一种倒装句，属于高级语法现象，在语法上有加分，例如：There are few opportunities for people working at home to communicate with others face to face。
4. 形式主语，It is adj for … to do sth，to do sth才是真正的主语，例如：It is beneficial for solving the problem of traffic james to reduce the number of private cars.比较常见的形容词有：easy/diffcult/possible/beneficial/harmful/adverse/convenient/necessary，遇到这些形容词时，可以尝试形式主语。
5. 形式宾语，多数用于非限制性定语从句中，which makes it adj for … to do sth，例如：There is very serious environmental pollution in major cities,which makes it easy for citizens to suffer some physical problems.或者They tend to be more independent after going abroad, which is beneficial for their future career.
6. 非谓语，主要使用现在分词doing与过去分词done两种形式，多用分词作为修饰成分，放在名词后面起修饰作用，这样就可以替换定语从句（6.0分段），例如：People who change their job frequently可以替换成People changing their job frequently，如果是被动语态则需要用到done，可以放在句首表示原因（6.5-7分段），例如：Restricted by many regulations or policies,domestic films may fail to cover some sensitive themes。可以放在句尾表示结果，例如：Employees will spend too much time in using a variety of electronic devices,leading to some physical problems,such as obesity or eye strain。
7. what/how引导名词性从句，可以随缘使用，例如：What education should focus on is the development of students’ ability.

#### 有意识的升级句子

There days,everyone has a mobile phone.

These days,(谁who)people of all generations have mobile phones,(哪些which)especially smartphones,(为什么)because you can do so many things with them.

She is …
She has …

She is gorgeous.
She has lively eyes.

4分：
She is beautiful,she’s tall,she’s my favourite singer,
she’s cool,I love her so much,so that’s the reason.

She has wrinkles,but she’s young.

I come from Beijing.

I come from Beijing which/that/where …

I come from … city called Beijing which/that/where …

6分：
She’s versatile girl who has a slim body with a medium height.

### 3.2.2 雅思语法高频考点

#### 句法&句型

…if…

##### 宾语从句

We all want to know if it will come true.

##### 主语从句

What attract him is her shapely legs.

##### 使用定语从句（5.5分）

She is a gorgeous girl/person who has bright eyes.

I come from Xi’an where I’ve been living for 10 years.

##### 使用让步状语从句（5.5分）

Even though she has wrinkles.She looks young.

… though …

##### 使用强调句（6分）

-It is sport that I fancy most

#### 其他

虚拟语气，倒装结构，这些都是出彩的地方

### 3.2.3 常见语法错误

#### 语法小错误

• because ...与so ...不能连用；

• 定语从句in where不能连用，要不就where，要不就in which；

• 泛指某个人要用some people，someone是特指某一个人；

• economic与economical都是形容词，前者表示"经济的"，
后者表示"精打细算的"、“节约的”、也许还带点"抠门"的意思；

• there is a large number of students，这里用is，而不是are；

• [due to/because of]，后面一般接单词或短语，不能接句子；

#### 介词+doing

I’m looking forward to hearing from you.

Happy birthday to you.

To this place

To be or not to be

We have finished this task to(不定式) meet your requirement.We have finished to(介词) a new level.

used to be/do

#### 主谓结构不完整

I like play baseball.

She good.

#### 单数可数名词不能裸奔

I eat an apple every single day in the morning.

what kind of sports do you like to do?

I like eatting apples.

Some people enjoy watching horror moives.

I am a big fan of going to beaches when I have free time.

The government should construct more entertaining facilities in cities.

Dirty water can spread diseases in villages.

Humans need clean water to live. water为不可数名词可以裸奔。

I want to set up a company in the city.

The tap water in the region is not safe to drink.

What kind of water do you like to drink?
I like drinking hot water.

What pet will you keep if you want?
-I want to keep a cat.

# 4. 如何准备雅思考试

## 4.2 考试次数

### 首考

有很多同学迟迟不肯首考是因为总觉得自己还没准备好，
这里强调，没准备好也要至少考一次，不考试你永远没有一种紧张感。
相信我，无论你准备多充分，你可能还是会觉得你没准备好。

没考过雅思，备考是没有针对性的，性价比很低，
因为你也不知道哪里是你的强项，哪里是你的弱项。

没考过雅思，你是没有考试压力的，
你还可以肆无忌惮的跟朋友去聚会，去玩游戏，周末一玩玩一天，
你不会因为浪费了一天而懊恼，后悔如果这一天用在备考雅思上该有多好。

没考过雅思，你永远会觉得反正还有那么长时间，拖一拖也没关系嘛，
没有刚性需求，就没有办法去学好，去认认真真踏踏实实的进入学习状态。

（对于那些嫌雅思考试费贵的同学，我真的无话可说。）

## 4.4 词汇、语法、背景&场景&主题

对背景熟悉，会让自己拥有很强的预测能力。

## 4.5 剑雅真题

备考到中期是一定要刷剑雅真题的，
并且理论上越早接触越好，不要在其他教材上浪费时间。

刷完题之后，一定要知道自己错在哪里，
为什么错？找到原因，需要举一反三，而不是疯狂的刷题。

考前两周需要刷剑13-15里的4套真题，刷题的时候需要注意连续性，
3个小时的持续投入，不要中途吃饭玩手机等，模拟真实的场景。

雅思考试中存在大量的同义替换，做完真题后，
需要总结一下出现的同义替换套路、题干与答案部分的生词、陌生的语法结构等等。

## 4.6 刷机经

机经也是需要刷的，但优先级在剑雅真题之后，
尤其是去记里面的思想和核心&高频词汇，机经有可能是不标准的，不要100%相信。

2018、2016、2017、2015为主，
2008、2009、2011、2014为辅。

[口语]的机经更重要一些，相比较于[写作]来说。

# 5. 听力 LISTENING

听力是3场雅思笔试考试中的第1场，A类与G类的雅思听力考试内容一致，
听力考不好，后面的考试都会受牵连、被影响，有挫败感。

听力考试是相对而言比较难的，因为每段听力材料只播放一次，
考生需要面对语速加快、口音、吞音连读弱读等变音现象，
在听的同时，我们还需要思考、读题、写答案，
有的答案词在句子的中间部分，我们还需瞬发记忆，
总之给我们的反应时间特别短，如果大脑反应时间超长的话，后面的题就会受影响。

听力中有很多场景，首先要对常见场景词汇保持熟悉，
这些场景词汇如果不熟悉的话肯定听不懂。

对于听力部分的生词，我们一定要张开嘴巴大声读出来，多读几遍，
才有可能形成肌肉记忆，对于单词的发音才会有更深的印象，
以至于再听到这个生词时，大脑才有可能瞬发反应出这个词的含义。

https://yangminghan.blog.csdn.net/article/details/100188088

## 听力评分标准

409
38 - 398.5
35 - 378
33 - 347.5
30 - 327
27 - 296.5
23 - 266
20 - 225.5
16 - 195
13 - 154.5
10 - 124

## 听力流程

2020版的听力考试规则中将SECTION改成PART并取消了Example预读环节，
就是减少了你的读题时间，正所谓雅思考试在逐年变难。

PART 1对话，填空题居多，两个人在聊一个日常生活&社会类话题（租房、打工、上学、旅游、买车等等），会问一些简单问题。
PART 2独白，选择题居多，一个人谈论一个日常生活&社会类的话题，
PART 3对话，选择题居多，最多四个人一起讨论一个教育&学术类的项目，可以尝试在草纸上尽早记录每个人的名字以及他们讲的核心内容简写
PART 4独白，填空题居多，一个人做一个通用学术类的研究演讲，与科普&教育相关。比如恐龙是如何灭绝的，与平时生活中比较少见，比较专业

难度系数为：PART 3 > PART 4 > PART 2 > PART 1

目标分数是6.5-7.0的话，PART 1是几乎不能错的，最多错1道题，
PART 与PART 2是保分重点，错误率必须要低！！！PART 1与PART 2只能错2-3个。

## 听力题型

听力所有题型都是按照题号出题，没有题号上的乱序，
都是按照题号顺序一个一个放的，这一点需要区别于阅读考试的乱序题型。

### 听力填空题（最高频）

PART 1和PART 4是填空题居多，PART 1是最多的。

因为时间有限，对于拼写复杂的单词，例如February，September这种单词，
可以先[简写/速写]填空题答案，听力材料播放结束后，再补全答案。

常识：试卷已知信息中的单词不可能是答案词。

#### 听力填空题如何审题

##### 填空题原则
1. 题号顺序固定，填空题的题号顺序是固定的，不会先说第3题的答案，再说第2题的答案。

2. 所听即所得，原文说的是什么就写什么，不用自己再考虑相关语法、时态、三单、单复数等问题，也不能写同义词，也不能有拼写错误，少写一个字母或多写一个字都不给分，专有名词要大写，一定要注意单复数问题。

##### 字数限定

有连字符的单词也算是一个WORD，例如：mother-in-law。

不被单词隔开的一串数字就是A NUMBER，电话号码和日期都是A NUMBER。

three weeks，算是一个词，不被ONLY ONE WORD吓到，

##### 找关键词

在开始播放听力材料前的空档期，一定要抓紧时间先看标题、题干、空[前/后]词等，
这些信息将有助于预测&判断&猜测关键词&进题词&定位词、
答案内容种类（数字、字母、时间日期、名称等）、答案词性等，
一定要考虑到同义替换，在PART 1中会有少量同义替换，在其他PART会更多。

空后的内容也需要划关键词，因为有可能空后词提前说，
或者空前词延后说，非常灵活。

What is the most common crime in the UK?
What two forms of theft does the policewoman mention?
Why are people in more danger when they are abroad?

因此我们需要有瞬间记忆的能力，可以记住1-3秒的语音内容。

PART 1的题都看完了，如果还有时间就去看PART 2，不要发呆，珍惜时间。

#### 听力填空题考点

questionnaire
n，问卷、调查

##### 数字

重点注意：手机号与日期的听写，很容易跟不上，需要勤加练习。

雅思考试中，没有加减乘除的计算，用阿拉伯数字能表达的地方都不需要写英文，

雅思考试中时间在小时和分钟之间用一个点，而不是两个点。

之后是日，月，年，从小到大的顺序，月份和星期，不可以缩写，
如果没有时间写全，可以先弄简写，之后再往答题卡中写全。

7500
seven and a half thousand

https://yangminghan.blog.csdn.net/article/details/106212839

https://english-number.com/number-test

##### 字母

注意，专有名词的首字母大写。

名词：78.8%

因此掌握名词的发音以及能听出来，至关重要，名词一定会考单复数，

，单词被的少、生词多、题型不了解，会增加反应速度，

###### 容易听混的地方

字母B、D、E、V、P

###### 名字 Name

至于一些简单且通用的名字则需要自己会默写，例如：
Edward、。

人名小陷阱：
有一些名字的发音类似于叫Tesla，但是给拼写的时候最后的字母却听着像i，
这就是一个小陷阱，正确答案其实是a，发音像i而已，
所以要瞬时记忆住答案词的发音，再结合拼写，确保万无一失。

一般地址都会先从一个数字（门牌号）开始，如果没有就是公寓的名字，
不要等考试的时候才反应过来。

(门牌号) + 公寓楼号 + 街道/路名 + (邮编) + 城市 + 国家
(30) Flat5 ParkRoad (NK3380) Beijing China

简单的街道名称不会拼写给你，需要自己背会，包括：
1.跟自然景观相关的hill、mountain、forest；
2.跟颜色相关的green、white；
3.跟方向相关的north、south、west、east；

Street [striːt]
n，街道

Road [rəʊd]
n，路

Avenue [ˈævənjuː]
n，大街、大道

Lane [leɪn]
n，小巷

Drive [draɪv]
n，车道

国内的邮编全是数字，外国的邮件中是数字与字母混合，字母要大写。

##### 数字+字母

postcode:AN96,7GR
passport No:JO6337
flight No:UAE1880
bus No:21A

#### 听力表单填空题（Form，高频，较简单）

大部分是送分题，考察名字、地址、数字、电话号码、时间日期、年龄、价格、面积、距离等等，

考察重点是数字和字母的拼写，要注意连续数字与字母的听写练习，
形成大脑瞬发记忆，如果听到的数字，第一反应要想一下，那就不行了，
因为你在想的那个时间，后面的数字就错过了。

#### 听力表格填空题（Table）

基本上是听到什么就写什么，没有同义替换，但有连格乱序。

WebsiteAge rangeUseful for
Playtime Online4 - 6Learning skills for games
Moving up1 ___Developing maths and language skills
Net Aware12 - 16Understanding 2 ___
Chat Electric13 - 16Making 3 ___
4 ___16 - 18Exam hints and tips

表格填空题有个重要的原则是：横向定位，纵向参考。
横向找定位词，纵向参考同类项，注意相邻题号。

【判断关键词】

1. 前格内容出现，后面紧跟答案
2. 相应的表头列
3. 层次与层次之间可能出现的转换信号

【预测答案词性与内容】

连格乱序

Then from say five until ten years of age,there is a really useful website called Moving up.

1. 先听Moving up，后面带2个数字。
2. 先听2个数字，后面带Moving up。

The last site is invaluable for teens staying for exams.Sixteen-to-eighteen-year-olds love Test Doctors.

#### 听力句子填空题（Sentence & Notes）

PART 2、3、4中均有出题，几乎是必考题型，难度相对较高，

这里充斥着大量空格周围已知信息的同义替换+空前词与答案词乱序
空前词几乎没有原词重现，几乎都换掉了，需要注意语法正确性。

In all departments,more 8___ will be recruited over the next year,and to ensure Benchmark Consulting is a good choice for potential employees.

##### 通过空格前后临近信息判断答案的词性以及内容

recruited多用于招聘，所以答案是某一类人的概率更大。

#### 听力流程图题（Flowchart，低频）

first、the first [step/stage]、firstly；
next、secondly；
thirdly、then、after that；
finally、eventually、lastly、at the end；

### 听力选择题（Choices，高频，较难）

与填空题不一样，选择题需要整句的听懂。

#### 听力单选题（Single-Choice，高频）

都是错误选项，真正答案与题干一般都会发生同义替换。

因此单选题不要听啥写啥，
也可能会出现3个选项都有原词重现的情况，那就要听原词重现+细节描述了。

在听之前，在时间允许的情况下，需要阅读全部的题干与选项，

题干与选项的含义需要弄清楚、理解其含义，
因为会出现大量的同义替换，
而不是单纯的只看单词就能答对。

单选题的题干肯定会出关键词及与之对应的同义替换，
有路标，非常重要，这是进题的关键。

我们需要培养出速读的能力，读题时间很短，如果读不完题，
那在播放音频之前就已经失败一半了，剩下的就靠随缘了。

PS Camping has been organising holidays for ___
A. 15 years
B. 20 years
C. 25 years

The holiday insurance that is offered by PS Camping
A. can be charged on an annual basis.
B. is included in the price of the holiday.
C. must be taken out at the time of booking.

#### 听力多选题（Multiple-Choice）

在读题时，我们需要把所有的选项都看一遍，
选项内容全部会说，但正确的只有几个，
其他的都是干扰项，我们需要边听边排除，
正确答案之间是并列关系，因此有时可以猜出答案。

### 听力地图题（Map，低频）

#### 用阅读时间（30秒）去审题

##### 2. 已知信息

[关键字/方位词]与答案的顺序可能是反的，但题号的顺序是不变的。

##### 3. 方位词

###### 常见地图题词汇

走廊corridor

小路,人行道pavement（英式）,footpath（澳式）,sidewalk（美式）

雕像sculpture

## 听力技巧

### 如何备考听力考试

备考顺序为：PART 1->PART 2->PART 4->PART 3，
PART 1作对了80%及以上之后（10道题只错1-2个），才可以去练PART 2，以此类推。

PART 1与PART 2必须保证每一句话都能听懂，做第一遍之后如果有没答上来的题，

首考前一定先把PART 1、PART 2先听个滚瓜烂熟争取能达到80%以上的正确率，

如果有没写出来的答案，不要急着立刻去看答案，而是再听1-2次，
再给自己一些机会，如果直接看答案，那么这套真题就被糟蹋了，
真题数量有限，因此需要珍惜真题的数量，切记疯狂刷题，
彻底搞清楚2套题比刷100套错90套要更高效。

我们需要从"做过的错题都有什么共性特征？"升华到"雅思听力到底在考什么？"。

#### 备考顺序

1.刷剑雅真题

2.看原文

3.机经

4.考前模考

模拟真实的考试场景，早晨9点开始自己模考，
连续专注3个小时，正式考试前一定要自己模考！！！

#### 备考时间规划

1. 短期（2-4周）：每天至少2个PART，至少20道题1.5小时，精听且总结错题，
同时积累单词，考察自身弱项并加强针对性练习。

2. 长期（4-9周）：每天一个PART，至少1小时，精听且跟读，培养语感，熟悉出题思路及套路，积累场景词汇，总结易错题型，着重练习弱项。

### 如何精听

1. 先从AppStore下载相关App叫【新东方雅思】、【每日英语听力】，使用手机带耳机可以适用各种场景下练习听力，甚至在走路的时候也可以。

2. 然后里面有很多题，我们只听剑雅真题4-14就行（留几个先别听，等考试前再突击一下），我们先做PART 1，因为PART 1是最简单的，大概初中英语的水平。
所有的PART 1全能听懂了之后，再升级到PART 2，以此类推，像升级打怪一样。

3. 先盲听1-2遍，所谓盲听就是正常语速，眼睛不看手机，让它自然播放，当然可能会有很多生词或你听不懂的地方，没关系，很正常，脑子里留下印象，知道哪里没听懂即可，接下来开始准备精听。

4. 先从听看开始，先听着语音看原文，可能会发现里面的生词很多，没关系，我们把生词记录下来，通过反复的记忆将生词转化成熟词，动词要记用法，名词要记拼写

5. 接下来进入到听读阶段，音频播放一句，自己跟着读一句，这个步骤是为了纠音+建立语感，正所谓听口不分家，如果读不明白或读的不准确，肯定会影响听力，至少重复4-10次。

6. 接下来进入到听写或复述阶段，听一句之后按暂停，写出或说出听力材料中的内容，听写是最能提升听力能力的部分，大家都有从听不懂到能听懂的过度，重在坚持。

7. 可以保证每个句子都能听懂且听写也没问题后，然后再把播放速度调快1.4倍，再盲听几次，发现能听懂80%以上，那这篇听力材料就练到位了，你的口语，听力，阅读，三个维度的水平都会成长。。

（其中可以设置单句播放，先单句播放几次，如果听不懂就看手机里的英文，再结合着英文和语音一起看+听，如果还是听不懂就调慢播放速度，听懂了之后就next到下一个单句，不停地重复听每个单句，直到每个单句都听明白为止，并尝试着使用影子跟读法，就是语音放什么，你立刻跟着说什么，一定要跟读，这样可以纠正发音，只有这样，才会有让声音在眼睛、耳朵、嘴里有一个循环。）

先精听PART 1、PART 2，PART 1、PART 2几乎所有的句子都要听懂，

PART 3、PART 4的精听是为要考7分以上的同学准备的。

剑雅真题精听后需要复查，3天后再泛听一遍之前精听的内容，

### 吞音、连读、元音弱读

Well,the first one is St lves.（C4-T1-S1）

So we can’t go there until after lunch.（C4-T2-S1）

Yes.We operate several tours up the coast.（C5-T1-S1）

though we do ask that children below eight years of age are accompanied by an adult.

### 听力保分要领

• 刻意练习专注度
我们经常在做题时会出现注意力不集中，经常走神，
高度集中注意力一段时间，需要刻意练习；

• 预判题目难易程度，做到心中有数；

• 学会放手，若一道题错过，立刻转移到下一题，不要浪费时间，以免打乱答题节奏，在雅思听力中有很多吞音连读弱读、口音等音变现象，
听不懂很正常，不用预期每一句话都能听得懂，
就跟不要预期在阅读考试中每一句话都能看懂一样。
听不懂就快速pass掉不要纠结这个而影响后续的判断，
大脑一思考，几秒钟过去，后面的内容就全浪费掉了，
不一定每个单词都听懂才能做对题，但你要清晰的知道你要听的是什么，
答案词在什么位置，关键词在哪里，你要等在那里，像等待猎物一样，
答案没写出来宁可蒙一个也不要空着，考官也有分布一些难题在其中，
故意在中间卡住你，让你断层，就算你听出来了也很难答对，
因此不要纠结这些不属于你的题；

• 利用好阅读时间，
每一部分的听力都会有一段阅读时间，
这段阅读时间不会播放任何听力音频，让你读题用的。
利用这段阅读时间来看题目和选项，
千万不要用来检查前面已经写过的答案。
因为时间不够了，不够你准备后面的问题。
而一旦你没时间去审题，那你就相当于盲听，
你在听的时候还得去看问题，那就恶性循环了；

### 找到关键字/定位词

当你在看题干或答案选项的时候，
你要快速找到句子里面的名词、动词、形容词。

the / a 后面接的词一般都是名词。

### 雅思听力陷阱

• is与isn’t
非常容易听错，一旦听错就会造成语义理解上的大幅度偏差导致答案错误。

• but
先说一个类似正确的答案，之后来一个but，转折一下，然后再说出真正的正确答案，因此听到答案词后还要听一下后面有没有变卦的情况，或者先让你进题，但不马上说正确答案，先放烟雾弹迷惑你一下，最后再说正确答案，也有的地方是先说正确答案，后面放烟雾弹，因此要多加小心。

• unlike
同上，先说unlike后面跟着一个疑似正确答案的词出来，但如果你没有听出来unlike那就会急匆匆的把假答案写上去，然后错过后面即将到来的真答案。

• assume/presume
在雅思听力考试中使用assume/presume（假设）引导一个句子，
然后对方用类似于sure这种肯定回答，那被引导的句子中就有答案词，
并且答案词不会说第二次，错过就没有了，
因此对于这种假设性的词汇，要把耳朵竖起来。

同上，这样的疑问句同理，这样的疑问句中跟着的就是答案词（前提是后面接yes/sure肯定回答）。

#### 不确定的名字

阅读是中国考生最容易提分的科目，同时也是听说读写四课里最简单的一科，

阅读笔试考试不像口语笔试考试那样有10分钟写答题卡的时间，
要直接把答案写在答题卡上。

阅读的难点在于长难句分析以及做题时间的把控。

## 6.1 阅读评分标准

39-40：9.0
37-38：8.5
35-36：8.0
33-34：7.5
30-32：7.0
27-29：6.5
23-26：6.0

## 6.2 阅读题型

注意：原文的括号里会出题，不要忽略括号。

### 6.2.1 阅读填空题

50%去翻译文章即可，填空题有一半是复制粘贴的送分题，
做填空题切记不要逐字翻译，这样会非常非常非常浪费时间，
填空题的答案词必须是原文中的原词，不能自己改动。

答案词千万不要因为拼写问题而写错，
尤其是照抄原文的那种答案词，要有检查机制。

1.认真分析，寻找线索

2.对比题干与原文（寻找同义转换）

3.难题合理推断

#### 摘要填空题（Summary）

Summary的意思是，题干本身就是从文章中已经总结好的内容，

##### 无选项摘要填空

called,named,known as,referred to as,单引号,破折号。

###### 4. 对应

在查找同义词时，需要结合上下文的语境来分析，
而不是单纯从单词本身的意思来分析，尤其是不要用中文含义来分析。

4.1 找同义词(逻辑关系)

【并列关系】

Thor Heyerdahl,the Norwegian ethnographer and adventurer, thought the statues had been created by pre-Inca peoples from Peru.(C11-T2-P2)

The sense of smell may involve response to _____ which do not smell,in addition to obvious odours.

Researchers have still to decide whether smell is one sense or two - one responding to odours proper and the other registering odourless chemicals in the air.

【比较关系】

The discovery on one pyramid of an object which resembled a _____ suggests they may have experimented with flight.

A wooden artefact found on the step pyramid at Saqqara looks uncannily like a modern glider.

resembled与like是同义替换，空格里的内容与pyramid为比较关系，

【因果关系】

It developed again in the 19th century as a direct result of the _____.

However, in the 19th century scientific English again enjoyed substantial lexical growth as the industrial revolution created the need for new technical vocabulary, and new, specialised, professional societies were instituted to promote and publish in the new disciplines.

【否定关系】

Children of average ability seem to need more direction from teachers because they do not have _____.

There appears to be a qualitative difference in the way the intellectually highly able think,compared with more average-ability or older pupils,for whom external regulation by the teacher often compensate for lack of internal regulation.

Plants which do not respond to light are referred to as _____.

Plants which flower after a period of vegetative growth, regardless of photoperiod, are known as day-neutral plants.

day-neutral plants

It was noted that the music stimulated the brain's neurons to release a substance called _____.

The first thing they discovered is that music triggers the production of dopamine - a chemical with a key role in setting people’s moods - by the neurons in both the dorsal and ventral regions of the brain.

dopamine

In recent years, many of them have been obliged to give up their _____ liestyle, but they continue to depend mainly on _____ for their food and clothes.

Over the past 40 years, most have abandoned their nomadic ways and settled in the territory’s 28 isolated communities, but they still rely heavily on nature to provide food and clothes.

In fact, the sensation is more similar to the way in which pain from a _____ arm or leg might be felt.

Experiments showed that, in fact facial vision is nothing to do with touch or the front of the face, although the sensation may be referred to the front of the face like the referred pain in a phantom limb.

phantom

It is still worth doing higher studies in the UK because the gap in earning between university graduates and the people who do not have university degrees is greater than anywhere else (3) _____.

the gap 是主语，从in earning一直到degrees都是在修饰主语，

International surveys continue to show the salary premium enjoyed by UK graduates over those who choose not to go to university as among the highest in the world.

people who do not have university degrees与those who choose not to go to university是同意替换。

in the world

The consumption of ______ would be cut because agricultural vehicles would be unnecessary.

It would also dramatically reduce fossil fuel use, by cutting out the need for tractors, ploughs and shipping.

fossil fuel

###### 5. 检查

1. 名词单复数；
2. 双写字母；
3. 丢失重要词汇，答案不完整；
4. 答案词改写（时态、词性等）；
##### 有选项摘要填空

1. 找定位词
2. 预判答案（词性&句意）
不要立刻就去找原文，而是利用选项来预判一下答案。有的题可以缩小选择范围。
有的题甚至可以不看原文直接出答案，如果时间允许，
可以再去看一下原文做一下double check，要知道阅读题的时间是很宝贵的。

1. 定位
2. 对应

#### 图表/流程图/表格填空题（Diagram/Flowchart/Table，相对低频、简单）

一般不会乱序，如果乱序也是距离很近几乎是上下句挨着的情况下。

1.隐藏线索（并列、因果）

2.小标题可定位

ProcedureAim
fix strong ______ to Greenland ice sheetsto prevent icebergs moving into the sea

Scientists have also scrutinised whether it’s possible to preserve the ice sheets of Greenland with reinforced high-tension cables, preventing icebergs from moving into the sea.

cables

ice sheets与Greenland没有被同义替换，可以做快速定位，
strong与reinforced做同义替换，要求答案数量只能是一个词，故cables。

______ is taken out,enabling Wheel to rotate.

The water between the gates is then pumped out. A hydrulic clamp, which prevents the arms of the Wheel moving while the gondola is docked, is removed, allowing the Wheel to turn.

clamp

“门中的水被抽干”，感觉有些不妥，发现端倪后，接着看原文，

allowing the Wheel to turn做同义替换，所以答案词是被非限从句修饰的clamp。

Boat travels through tunnel beneath Roman ______.

The Wheel could not be constructed to elevate boats over the full 35-metre difference between the two canals, owing to the presence of the historically important Antonine Wall, which was built by the Romans in the second century AD. Boats travel under this wall via a tunnel, then through the locks, and finally on to the Union Canal.

wall

______ raise boat 11 m to level of Union Canal.

The remaining 11 metres of lift needed to reach the Union Canal is achieved by means of a pair of locks.

locks

______ to prevent hull being sucked into mud.

The problem of the hull being sucked back downwards into the mud was overcome by using 12 hydraulic jacks.

hydraulic jacks

______ used as extra protection for the hull.

The lifting cradle was designed to fit the hull using archaeological survey drawings, and was fitted with air bags to provide additional cushioning for the hull's delicate timeber framework.

air bags

what…
where/what place…
why…
when/what time…
who…
which
how much…
how many…
how often…
how…

Which animal might ichthyosaurs have resembled?

Ichthyosaurs were reptilian contemporaries of the dinosaurs, with fins and streamlined bodies. The fossils look like dolphins and they surely lived like dolphins.

resemble与like是同义词，所以答案是dolphin。

What was the name finally used to refer to the first colour Perkin invented?

Perkin originally named his dye Tyrian Purple, but it later became commonly known as mauve.

Which two processes are mentioned as those in which animals had to make big changes as they moved onto land?

Moving from water to land involved a major redesign of every aspect of life, including breathing and reproduction.

1. 疑问词作用大，用来缩小答案范围，原文生词多也不怕；
2. 找到答案向后看一句，防止转折；
3. 发现题干中的并列关系，可以快速从原文中找到并列关系词；

### 6.2.2 阅读判断题（超高频，较难）

我们所有的判断都来源自题干与原文，不要添加主观想法、过度推测、发散思维等。

需要注意题目要求，有的是让写TRUE、FALSE，有的是让写YES、NO，
如果写错则不给分，用T、F、NG或Y、N、NG是给分的。

至少同时带2道题干内容进入原文，以防漏掉中间的大量题干所对应的原文内容。

先带1、2去原文，找到1之后，再带2、3进原文，2找到，再带3、4进原文。

• 6个判断题中，NOT GIVEN的出题概率较小，为1-2个；

• 80%的情况，题干出现表示绝对的词多为FALSE，表达不留余地，把话说死了，像must、only、every、any、all、totally、entirely、fully、completely、purely、solely、sole；

• 80%的情况，题干出现表示相对的词多为TRUE，表达留余地，没把话说死了，像may、may not、not all、possible、likelyin general

• 90%的情况，题干出现有明显比较双方的比较级，是两个东西做对比，而不是自己跟自己比（类似于"我比之前吃的更多了"），一般选NOT GIVEN；

#### TRUE/YES

##### 同义表达

Human beings are responsible for some of the destruction to food-producing land.

At present, through the world, over 80% of the land that is suitable for raising crops is in use. Some 15% of that has been laid waste by poor management practices.

Most countries continue to prefer to trade with nearby nations.

Countries still trade disproportionately with their geographic neighbours.

disproportionately是"不成比例的"，一般disproportionately一般表示过多，

From the beginning of the World Solar Challenge races, there were rules governing the effectiveness of the braking systems and the size of the cars.

Until 2007, apart from overall specifications concerning vehicle dimensions and brake efficiency, there were few restrictions on the design of the cars, which tended to be weird and wonderful.

Before the new design rules were introduced, the driver was allowed to be partly lying down in the car.

Thus, for the 2007 race, some new design rules were established. The driver now has to be in a normal sitting position, rather than reclining as had been the rule, and must be able to get in and out of the vehicle unaided.

The way a child plays may provide information about possible medical problems.

Gibson adds: ‘Playful behaviour is also an important indicator of healthy social and emotional development. In my previous research, I investigated how observing children at play can give us important clues about their well-being and can even be useful in the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders like autism.’

##### 推断归纳

Several species of wildlife in the British countryside are declining.

In Britain, for example, many of our best-loved farmland birds, such as the skylark, the grey partridge, the lapwing and the corn bunting, have vanished from huge stretches of countryside, as have even more wild flowers and insects.

Some banned drugs do not actually improve sporting performance.

The list of banned substances includes various stimulants, hormones, chemicals and steroids, as well as blood doping and the use of substances to mask drug use.

#### FALSE/NO

##### 反义抵触

Marie stopped doing research for several years when her children were born.

The birth of Marie’s two daughters, Irene and Eve, in 1897 and 1904 failed to interrupt her scientific work.

The East German athletes were not greatly affected by the drug taking they experienced.

The opening of official secret police records in 1993 showed that doping had been a systematic state policy in East Germany for the past thirty years, often without the knowledge of the young athletes involved. Many still suffers from the effects, both physical and mental, of this extensive drug use.

##### 推断归纳

The study involved asking children a number of yes/no questions.

School children were asked to complete a questionnaire containing five open form questions.

#### NOT GIVEN

NOT GIVEN是我们从小到大学英语都没有接触到的新概念，

Tourism contributes over six per cent of the Australian gross national product.

… producing over six per cent of the world’s gross national product.

There was some opposition to the design of the Falkirk Wheel at first.

Numerous ideas were submitted for the project, including concepts ranging from rolling eggs to tilting tanks, from giant see-swas to overhead monorails.

### 6.2.3 阅读选择题

#### 阅读单选题

• 有一部分信息在原文中未提到，与问题无关，所问非所答，只是从文章中找到一个信息放到选项中，但并没有考虑到文章在问什么。（90%）

• 与原文矛盾，类似于判断题中的FALSE。

• 与原文信息原词对应，恨不得每一个词跟原文都是一模一样，包括单词+数字，
但其实是陷阱、干扰项。

The book Educating Psyche is mainly concerned with _____.
A. the power of suggestion in learning.
B. a particular technique for learning based on emotions.
C. the effects of emotion on the imagination and the unconscious.
D. ways of learning which are not traditional.

Educating Psyche by Bernie Neville is a book which looks at radical new approaches to learning, describing the effects of emotion, imagination and the unconscious on learning. One theory discussed in the book is that proposed by George Lozanov, which focuses on the power of suggestion.

which修饰的是theory，选项A偷换主语，选项A是符合文章，但不符合问题。

B选项说以"学习方法以情绪为基础"，原文说"情绪会影响学习"，与原文不符。

D选项说"不传统的学习方法"与原文中的"新学习方法"对应。

The writer was surprised because the blind woman.
A. drew a circle on her own initiative.
B. did not understand what a wheel looked like.
C. included a symbol representing movement.
D. was the first person to use lines of motion.

and other surfaces in space. But pictures are more than literal representations. This fact was drawn to my attention dramatically when a blind woman in one of my investigations decided on her own initiative to draw a wheel as it was spinning. To show this motion, she traced a curve inside the circle Fig. 1). I was taken aback.

take aback表示惊讶，如果不懂也可以用排除法来做题，所以答案选C。

A选项与原文太相似，所以排除。B选项与原文矛盾，

D选项说盲人是第一个用线表示运动的人，原文中并没有提及。

According to the writer,the ‘displacement effect’ on the visitor is caused by.
A. the variety of works on display and the way they are arranged.
B. the impossibility of viewing particular works over a long period.
C. the similar nature of the paintings and the lack of great works.
D. the inappropriate nature of the individual works selected for exhibition.

The visitor may then be struck by the strangeness of seeing such diverse paintings, drawings and sculptures brought together in an environment for which they were not originally created. This ‘displacement effect’ is further heightened by the sheer volume of exhibits. In the case of a major collection, there are probably more works on display than we could realistically view in weeks or even months.

• 80%的情况，选项出现表示绝对的词多为错误，表达不留余地，把话说死了，像must、onlyeveryanyall、totally、entirely、fully、completely、purely、solely、sole

• 80%的情况，选项出现表示相对的词多为对的，表达留余地，没把话说死了，像may、may not、not all、not always、possiblelikelyin general

• 4个选项中，如果有2个非常相似&或者有2个非常相反，那么其中有一个是正确选项，通过这种规律可以快速排出另外2个没有特点的选项。

### 6.2.4 阅读搭配题

#### 阅读[配对/归类]题（Match&Classify，高频，无序）

[Match/Classify]题型的出题概率几乎为100%，

Classify题型时，答案没有限制，可以重复使用。

Match题型时，我们需要看是否有(NB)标识，代表答案是否可以重复选择。
“You may use any letter more than once.”

这种题一般定位比较简单，定位词一般为人名、地名、时间、国家名等等，
需要注意题目是乱序的，要按照原文的顺序去找，而不是按题目的顺序。

Match each city with the correct description,A-E

1. Perth
2. Auckland
3. Portland

List of Descriptions
A. successfully uses a light rail transport system in hilly environment
B. successful public transport system despite cold winters
C. profitably moved from road to light rail transport system
D. hilly and inappropriate for rail transport system
E. heavily dependent on cars despite widespread poverty
F. inefficient due to a limited public transport system

Match each event with the correct nationality,A-F

1. They devised a civil calendar in which the months were equal in lenght.
2. They divided the day into two equal halves.
3. They developed a new cabinet shape for a type of timekeeper.
4. They created a caiendar to organise public events and work schedules.

List of Nationalities
A. Babylonians
B. Egyptians
C. Greeks
D. English
E. Germans
F. French

Classify the following descriptions as relating to
A.caloric-restricted monkeys
B.control monkeys
C.neither caloric-restricted monkeys nor control monkeys

Write the correct letter, A, B or C, in boxes 33-37 on your answer sheet.
33. Monkeys were less likely to become diabetic.
34. Monkeys experienced more chronic disease.
35. Monkeys have been shown to experience a longer that average lifespan.
36. Monkeys enjoyed a reduced chance of heart disease.
37. Monkeys produced greater quantities of insulin.

1. The effects of geo-engineering may not be long-lasting.
2. Geo-engineering is a topic worth exploring.
3. It may be necessary to limit the effectiveness of geo-engineering projects.
4. Research into non-fossil-based fuels cannot be replaced by geo-engineering.

List of Scientists
A. Roger Angel
B. Phil Rasch
C. Dan Lunt
D. Martin Sommerkorn

And Dr Phil Rasch of the US-based Pacific Norrhwest National Laboratoru is equally guarded about the role of geo-engineering: ‘I think all of us agree that if we were to end geo-engineering on a given day, then the planet would return to its pre-engineered condition very rapidly, and probably within ten to twenty years. That’s certainly something to worry about.’

According to Dr Martin Sommerkorn, climate change advisor for the World Wildlift Fund’s International Arctic Programme, ‘Human-induced climate change has brought humanity to a position where we should’t exclude thinking thoroughly about this topic and its possibilities.’

To aviod such a scenario, Lunt says Angel’s project would have to operate at half strength; all of which reinforces his view that the best option is to avoid the need for geo-engineering altogether.

Angel says that his plan is ’no substitute for developing renewable energy:the only permanent solution.’

1. B
2. D
3. C
4. A

#### 阅读完成句子题（Sentence Completion，中频，一般有序）

Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.
Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 19-22 on your answer sheet.

1. According to Dingle, migratory routes are likely to
2. To prepare for migration,animals are likely to
3. During migration,animals are unlikely to
4. Arctic terns illustrate migrating animals’ ability to

A. be discouraged by difficulties.
B. travel on open land where they can look out for predators.
C. eat more than they need for immediate purposes.
D. be repeated daily.
E. ignore distractions.
F. be governed by the availability of water.

Complete each sentence with the correct ending A-G below.
Write the correct letter A-G in boxes 24-27 on your answer sheet.

1. One of the brain’s most difficult tasks is to
2. Because of the language they have developed,humans
3. Individual responses to humour
4. Peter Derks believes that humour

A. react to their own thoughts.
B. helped create language in humans.
C. respond instantly to whatever is happening.
D. may provide valuable information about the operation of the brain.
E. cope with difficult situations.
F. relate to a person’s subjective views.
G. led our ancestors to smile and then laugh.

1. 在for example之前的句子是段落中的重点；
2. 做实验&调查时，要有结论，重点结论句型：…show that…/…suggest that…；
3. 注意转折，转折的重点在后面，转折关系关键词详见3.1.8.2；

Mixed views on current changes to museum.

Recently, however, attitudes towards history and the ways it should be presented have altered.

Enough food at last.

The increased productivity from farmland made some countries self-sufficient in grain and livestock and offered effective protection against famine.

A difficult landscape.

The Canadian Arctic is a vast,treeless polar desert that’s covered with snow for most of the year.

#### 阅读段落题（Paragraph，无序，中频，最难）

Which paragraph contains the following information?

答案无序，因此在审题阶段就需要把这3-6道题都看一遍，然后缓存在大脑中，
原文每读完一段，就停一下，check一下是否包含答案关键词。

Reading Passage 1 has six sections,A-F.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter. A-F in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.
1.details of the range of family types involved in an education programme.
2.reasons why a child’s early years are so important.
3.reasons why an education programme failed.
4.a description of the positive outcomes of an education programme.

mention of a geo-engineering project based on an earlier natural phenomenon.

The idea is modelled on historic volcanic explosions,such as that of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991, which led to a short-term cooling of global temperatures by 0.5 ℃.

## 6.3 阅读技巧

### 6.3.1 如何备考阅读

1. 先把题型特点与解题方式学会，先练题型，弄清解题思路；
2. 把所有题型拼在一起去做，掌握做题节奏，掌握技巧，先做哪个后做哪个；
3. 剑雅真题中先做第1篇文章，因为比较简单，在做了一堆第1篇文章后还能能保证正确率在90%以上，再做第2篇，以此类推；

1. 先将[题目/题干]与原文中中非专业术语类的生词查一查，
自己抽空把这些生词消化掉，可能认识的单词放到句子中感觉很奇怪，翻译的不通顺，那这种单词我们也需要查，可能是我们不了解这个单词的其他含义；

2. 对照文章原文与[题目/题干]，寻找同义替换的套路，自己总结起来；

3. 分析[题目/题干]中长难句的语法结构，例如：后置分词起修饰作用，还有各种从句等等，补充一下自己不了解的语法知识点。

4. 总结段落大意（可省略）。

### 6.3.2 阅读解题思路

为什么慢？是因为你没有掌握有效节省时间的阅读方法论。

找定位与详略得等是雅思阅读考试中最重要的能力，
快速做题节省时间，成为了我们答高分的致命武器。

因此我们一定要先阅读[题目/题干]内容，再带着问题去阅读原文。

#### 看题顺序

雅思阅读有序题型，它们分别是：
填空题（除带选项的摘要填空）、判断题、选择题、部分配对题（完成句子）。

如果一篇文章出了2-3套顺序题，那我们需要使用平行法来做题，

1先出现的话，那下面接着来找2、3、8、9，
2再出现的话，那下面接着来找3、4、8、9，
8再出现的话，那下面接着来找3、4、9、10，

#### 找定位词

figure,number,amount,statistics,statistical数字
proportion,percentage分数/百分数
financial,income,economic,cost,fund,expenditure
time,period,century,past,recent时间
processes,procedures,stages序数词
location,region,site,international,global地名
overview,concept,early,origin,ancient,history,definition,cause,introduction,assumption,hypothesis文章开头1-2段
impact,future,prospect,outlook,conclusion,result,consequence文章结尾

##### 找普通定位词

顺序如下：名词>动词>形容词>副词。

#### 阅读原文&原文定位

千万千万千千万不要每一句话都精读，
更不要去琢磨一些与答案没有关系的生僻词的含义或语法，

副词、形容词、定语从句、状语从句等都是起修饰作用，
可以选择性pass掉，因为不会影响句子的主要含义，节省时间。

##### 生词

我们在做雅思阅读模考或练习时，
遇到生词的第一反应不是先查词典，而是通过上下文语境，
去猜其含义，之后再查词典去确认，
这样会培养出一种猜单词的能力，
这在阅读考试中尤为重要。

文章中的专业词汇有很多不用背，只背比较常见的生词即可，
例如"细胞壁"、"纳米科技"、"光合作用"之类的。

#### 句子逻辑

##### 隐藏的逻辑关系

1. 像下面的这种小点点，隐藏的是并列关系。
• xxx
• yyy
1. 表格题或填空题中的优缺点对比，隐藏的是转折关系。

2. 像下面的这种括号，隐藏的是举例关系。
专有名词 +（xxx、yyy、zzz）

# 7. 写作 WRITING

雅思写作考试需要自己有写作文的能力，也就是说，
你先得有用中文写作文的能力，再延伸到你的英语能力。

写作需要较强的单词+语法基础，除此之外，还需要让自己的文章有逻辑、结构、思路。

小作文的原则是比较原则，使用比较级，最高级，而不是流水账，
而大作文则是解释原则，你需要去解释清楚你的观点，论据要分析、延展、解释。

https://yangminghan.blog.csdn.net/article/details/106865560

## 7.1 写作评分标准

需要找出图表中的[关键信息/特征数据]遗漏重要的细节会被扣分

7* 写作内容涵盖写作任务的要求； * 清晰地呈现关于主要趋势、区别或不同阶段的概述； * 能就[主要内容/要点]进行清晰的呈现与强调，但未能更为充分地展开；
6* 根据写作任务要求作文； * 选择恰当的信息进行概述； * 呈现并充分地强调了主要内容/要点，但有时含有不相关、不恰当或不准确的细节信息；
5* 基本上能就写作任务作文，但某些地方写作格式有时存在不当之处； * 机械地描述细节，缺乏清晰的概述有时未能提供数据支持所描述的内容； * 呈现但不能充分地涵盖[主要内容/要点]；有时出现着重表述细节的倾向；

#### Task Response(TASK 2，大作文)

确保每一部分都有完成，这是提分的关键，
没有充分理解题干、没有覆盖到题干关键词、以及跑题，
那就是5分，无论你的作文在其他方面写的有多好。

7* 回应各部分写作任务； * 回应写作任务过程中始终呈现一个清晰的观点； * 呈现、发展主要论点并就其进行论证，但有时出现过于一概而论的倾向及/或论点缺乏重点的倾向；
6* 回应了各个部分的写作任务，但某些部分的论证可能比其他部分更为充分； * 提出一个切题的观点，尽管各种结论有的时候不是很清晰或重复； * 提出了多个相关的主要论点，但某些论点可能未能充分展开进行论证或不甚清晰；
5* 仅回应了部分写作任务；写作格式有时在某些地方不甚恰当； * 表述了一个观点，但展开论证过程未能保持一贯清晰，且可能缺乏结论； * 提出一些主要论点但十分有限，且未能充分展开论证；有时出现无关细节；

### Coherence and Cohesion(CC)

衔接性指连接词的使用，连接词用来帮助整合观点，连接词详见3.1.8.2章节，
并阐明段落、句子、句子成分之间的关系，连接词过多会适得其反。

on the one hand…on the other hand…

7* 符合逻辑地组织信息及观点；清晰的行文推进贯穿全文； * 恰当地使用一系列衔接手段，尽管有时使用不足或过多； * 每个段落均有一个清晰的中心主题（大作文）
6* 连贯地组织信息及观点，总体来说，能清晰地推进行文发展； * 有效地使用衔接手段，但句内及/或句间的衔接有时有误或过于机械（不要总用这些连接词，用语义托起整个段落的内容，整个段落是承上启下的）； * 有时无法保持一贯清晰或恰当地使用指代； * 使用段落写作，但未能保持段落间的逻辑（大作文）；
5* 有一定组织性地呈现信息，但总体来说有时缺乏清晰的总体行文推进； * 衔接手段不足、不准确或过度使用； * 由于指代和替换不足显得行文重复； * 没有使用段落写作，或者分段不足（大作文）；

### Lexical Resource(LR)

7* 使用足够的词汇（充分的单词量），体现一定灵活性及准确性； * 使用不常见词汇，对语体及搭配有一定认识（考生有文体和搭配的意识，能注重书面语和口语的区别）； * 在选择用词、拼写及/或构词方面可能偶尔出现错误；
6* 使用足够的词汇（充分的单词量）开展写作任务； * 试图使用不常用词汇，但有时使用不准确； * 在拼写及/或构词方面（固定搭配）有错误，但不影响交流；
5* 使用词汇范围有限（有限的的单词量，经常使用重复的词汇，不会做同义转换），但能达到进行写作任务的最低限度； * 在拼写及/或构词方面可能出现明显的错误，且可能会对读者造成一定的阅读困难；

### Grammatical Range and Accuracy(GRA)

7* 运用各种复杂的语法结构（复杂句占大多数，考生可以用到多样且复杂的句子结构，不能都是定语从句，这样结构太单一了，要用到各种从句结构，做到多样性。如果能写出来从句嵌套从句或用3个连词连接4个从句，这种亮点，哪怕全文只出现一次，都会让考官刮目相看，从而加分）； * 多数句子准确无误； * 对语法及标点符号掌握较好，但有时出现少许错误；
6* 综合使用简单句式与复杂句式（哪怕是重复反复出现都可以，如果一段话有10个句子，2-3个复杂句和7-8个简单句，简单句必须写对）； * 在语法及标点符号方面有一些错误，但这些错误很少影响交流；
5* 仅能使用有限的语法结构（大篇幅的简单句）； * 试图使用复杂句，但复杂句的准确性常不及简单句的准确性； * 可能经常出现语法及标点符号使用的错误；这些错误会对读者造成一定的阅读困难；

## 7.2 写作题型

pie chart、line graph、bar chart、table、flow chart、map。

Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.

#### 7.2.1.1 数据型

雅思小作文出题频率最高的就是线、柱、饼、表。
四个图是可以互相转化的，虽然外形不一样，但数据是一样的。

如果图表中没有提及时间，一般属于静态图，
数据会随着时间的推移而变化属于动态图。

##### 7.2.1.1.2 线形图题 Line Graph

线形图题一般是动态图，随着横轴时间段的推移，纵轴的数据发生变化。

##### 7.2.1.1.3 柱状图&条形图 Bar Chart（最高频）

一组数据中可以存在好几个柱形数据，
这些组内的柱形数据也需要比较，
跨组之间的数据也可以进行比较。

##### 7.2.1.1.4 表格题 Table （高频）

如果是动态表格题，则需要在卷纸上用箭头标画出每个项目的升降走势，
自己分析出是否极具变化（是否有倍数关系？）还是缓慢变化等特征数据。

TIPS：
form和table的区别是什么？
table是用来呈现数据的，而form是让你用来填写表单的。

#### 7.2.1.2 非数据型

##### 7.2.1.2.2 地图题 Map

2张地图一般是给2个时间，对比2张图的变化。

A，过去的外貌和现在对比；
B，现在外貌和未来可能的外貌对比；
C，过去、现在和预期未来外貌的对比；

### 7.2.2 大作文 TASK 2

1. 年轻人越来越喜欢换工作了，优点和缺点是什么？
2. 政府是否应该向老年人收税？

#### [辩论/议论]类

##### 利弊分析（高频）

Do you think this is a positive or negative situation?

##### 同意与否（最高频）

What’s your opinion?/(To what extend) Do you agree or disagree?

##### 双边讨论（高频）

这种题完全可以做到55开，两边说的都对，都认同。
先双边讨论，再给出观点，开头不给出立场，结尾再明确观点。

Discuss both views and give your opinion.

#### 报告类

##### 追因求解/原因措施（低频）

报告类题干一般会有2个问题，千万不要遗落，2个问题都要回答。

What do you think the [reasons/causes]?
What do you think are the causes of this situation?
Can you suggest some solutions?

###### （问题）需要解决

PRS=problem、reasons and solutions.

###### （现象）不需要解决

PCE=phenomenon、causes and effects.

#### 其他类

##### 组合出题（低频）

What do you think are the reason?

注意审题，千万不要漏答其中的一个问题，否则会被扣大分，基于这种题型，
7分段以下的选手可以采用4段写法，中间第1段写原因，第2段写2个利1个弊。

## 7.3 数据型小作文解题思路

小作文其实不难，只要把固定的短语与搭配记住且会找数据的特征即可。

写小作文一定要客观描述，
就是从把图里的数据客观的用文字呈现出来就可以了，否则会扣分。

千万不要像写议论文一样，增加自己的小点评、小分析、小感想，
不要脑补出来一些主观信息，在结尾的时候不需要任何的总结和升华。

小作文是依据客观信息，主观加工总结的呈现，不是主观随意添加内容。
小作文一般不太需要连接词，句子间的逻辑关系比较少。

小作文中不能有因果关系，不能添加主观猜测、假设，不能有if，because，

6种基本句型里至少用到3种，从句有2-3句点缀就很好了，
and、but、while、whereas能够用到这个级别的连词来衔接前后句子，

### 7.3.1 判断静态图还是动态图

动与静的写法、策略都不一样，
一般静态图是写比大小，动态图是写趋势，描写升降。

如果是静态图则可以转化成柱状图（柱状图体现高低），
动态图可以转化成线形图（线形图体现升降），
这样就可以很容易看出宏观特征与趋势。

“变"就是"动”，所以叫动态图，

#### 小作文跑题

小作文中也会有跑题，动态数据与静态数据看不准，就会发生跑题现象。

有的图很有迷惑性，感觉上好像是有规律有波动的，但其实也是静态图。

### 7.3.2 判断时态

小作文里不会出现：现在进行时、过去进行时。

It was increasing.

It increased.

【静态图时态】
如果图表中给过去的时间，例如1994年，就用过去时，
如果没有给时间就用一般现在时。

【动态图时态】

从现在到未来，需要说预计上升：
is expected to，is predicted to，estimated，projected。

注意现在的时态，站在现在预测未来，所以用is，而不是will be。

### 7.3.3 找特征数据

不是所有的数据点都要写，时间不够用，也没有必要，更不符合题目要求，
没有特征的数据不用提，需要有取舍，只写一些关键的，比较有特点的数据。

静态图的特征数据有：
最值（最[高/低/大/小]、第二[高/低/大/小]）、相同、相似、[倍数/分数]关系，
而且要先描述重要的、特征突出的部分，再描述次要的地方，注意顺序。

动态图的特征数据有：
时间段内的最值（最高点和最低点）；
持续的数据（基本）不变的阶段；
急剧&平缓的[上升/下降]阶段；
明显&频繁波动的阶段，在波动中[上升/下降]，可能有多次；
（线图）相交的点（1个把另1个反超）；
与大趋势相逆，大部分在降，少部分在升；
两条线重叠的地方；

只有定下来首尾，才知道趋势是升还是降。

#### 如何描述数据

##### 数据表达

###### 数值

数据没有办法自己蹦出来，需要由介词来引导
,[at/with] + 数据，用这2个介词来引出静态的数据。

It then reached the peak, at 500, in the next year.

###### 百分比

percentage是抽象概念，percent是具体的数据，不要写反了。

30 percent = 30% = 30 per cent

The average percentage is 30%.

The most popular foreign language is English among teenagers,which is 78% of the chart.

account for
make up
represent

A [make up/represent/account for] 26% of the total survey.

… , which [make up/represent/account for] 22 percent of the chart.
非限定从

##### 分别

respectively用来表示"分别"，放在数据的后面，
中国的产电与用电分别是100 and 200 respectively。

only 9 and 7 percent of teenagers choose A and B respectively.

… , which make up 26% and 24% of the preferences respectively.

##### 范围

from 50 to 100

ranging from 50 to 1000

##### 最值

动态图与静态图都可以使用"最值"

London has the [longest/shortest] subway.

A is the most popular food of all, because they [account for/make up/represent] the largest [proportion/percentage] of the chart, at 33 perent.

A is the most popular fastfood in the survey, at 38%.

Ranking the [first/second], the subway in London is

The least popular fast food in this survey is …

following that, …
it is followed by … ,which …

B is the second most popular, and this makes up 26 percent of the total survey(高级词汇).

##### 比较

more,less,fewer

the most,the least,fewest

B, ranking the [first/second] with 30%, is much more welcomed than C.

The percentage of males who held master’s degree was 20% higher than that of females.

The subway in London is [longer/shorter] than that in any other cities.

A is less popular than B.
A没有B那么流行
A比B更不流行

Fewer students play sport than watch TV.

[up to/as much as]

[only/a mere/no more than]

[top/exceed/in excess of]

[less than/below/under]

Those under 45(who got to know the related advertisement) were slightly more than the ones over 45.

[more than/over/above]

while 而，然而（用于对比、比较，左右都有主谓结构）
Both companies spent the most money on television promotion, with A spent $25000 while B spent$20000.

whereas 而，然而（用于对比、比较，左右都有主谓结构）
A spent the second highest amount on newspaper advertising, at approximately $125000, whereas B spent only about$75000 on this type.

in contrast 相对比之下（用于对比、比较）

In contrast, A spent twice as much(倍数关系+同级比较) on the Internet as B, at $10000 and$20000 respectively.

##### 大约

[approximately/about/around]

##### 关于

in relation to…
This graph reveals the test scores of primary school children in relation to the hours they spend doing homework.

concerning

regarding

over

as to

rely on …

depend on …

##### [分数/倍数]关系

A is 3 times of B.

… ,which was 2.5 times of the younger age group.

A had a significantly higher production,being 3 times of B’s.

[twofold/threefold/fourfold]
2/3/4倍

A doubles the figure for B.

There was a fourfold rise in Brazilian student enrolments.

[two/three/four] times … as … as …
[two/three/four] times more than …

The number of your apples is four times as large as that of mine.

The number of your apples is three times larger than that of mine.

【倍数关系+同级比较】

twice as [much/many] … as…

Those over 45 are 25 thousand,and it is 2.5 times as many people as the under 45 age group.(5.5分)

A spent twice as much money as B on charities,at 200000 and 100000 respectively.

A spent twice as much on the Internet as B.

There is a one third gap between B,with 20 kilograms and C,at 30 kilograms.
gap=差距,a one third gap = 1/3的差距。

The number of students who came from China,at 35000,was more than twice the number of Indian students, at 15000.

##### 差值

[disparity/difference/gap]

The [disparity/difference/gap] of males and their counterparts in terms of master’s degree was 20%.

The [disparity/difference/gap] of A and B is 数量.

The [amount/number/percentage] of A is 数量 [higher/larger] than that of B.
percentage与higher搭配，[amount/number]与larger搭配。

##### 相等/相似

动态图与静态图都可以使用"相等/相似/不变"

A is similar to B.
A and B are similar.

A is equal to B.
A and B are the same.

the same as...
（扩展，没有as same as…这种表达，但有the same as…）

There are 10 thousand people under 45 who saw the advertisement on TV.
It is the same as on billboard.(5.5分)

For the media of TV,there were 10 thousand audiences under 45 knowing the advertising,which was the same as the figure by billboard.

##### 表示升降趋势

有些词有动词、名词两种词性：
rise,increase,decrease,drop,fall

It then increased.
Then,there was an increase.

###### 起始

[started at …/began at…]

###### 上升

rise,increase,climb,grow,go up,improve

【稳步上升】
rose slightly
slightly higher
moderate growth

The viewing time is slightly higher for the 45 to 54 age group,at about 2.1 hours,and increases to 2.6 hours for the people who are 55 to 64 years old.

increase by

increase to

… increased from 6000 to 72000…

… ,and the viewing time increases with age.

【急剧上升】
increased sharply
dramatic increase
increase dramatically
rose significantly
grew significantly
climbed quickly

There was a [significant/dramatic] [rise/increase] in the number of A, which went from 3500 to 5100.

【达到峰值/最高】

[increased/reached] the peak

peaked

increased to the peak

… ,whereas those over 45 reached the peak, with 25000…

###### 下降

go down,drop,fall,decrease,dip,decline,reduce,less,dropped back

decrease by

decrease to

A decreased to 22000.

【急剧下降】
decrease dramatically
dropped sharply
fell sharply
massive reduction
significant decrease
fell significantly

There was a significant decrease in numbers from A, although it still remained the largest group.

【缓慢下降】
moderate dip

… ,but decreases slightly to around 1.8 average hours for the viewers who are 35 to 44.

There was a small decrease in the number of A, from 6000 in 2000 to 4000 in 2005.

【最低点】
[reached/dropped to] the lowest point

landed to the bottom

###### 波动

fluctuate,change

… with fluctuations

changed considerably [kənˈsɪdərəbli]

In 2005,the proportion of students changed considerably.

###### 不变/稳定

remain,stay,maintain,unchanged,steady,stable,level,remained inconsistent,levelled off,maintained the same level,a similar geowth pattern,the overall trend.

it then remained unchanged for + 时间

A stayed mostly unchanged,at 16000.

remain relatively stable

It fell sharply over the next three years to about 95 million in 1992 and remained relatively stable after that at between 96 and 90 million birds.

It kept unchanged.

it stayed steady.

It was stable.

[they then crossed/A then overtook反超 B]

ended at …

###### 综合

The number of A [rose/dropped] [slightly/sharply] over this ten-year period.

This increased to a peak of about 126 million in 1980,and then dropped sharply over the next six years to approximately 98 million in 1986.

The average test score decreases as the number of viewing hours increases.

The average test score decreases as the hours increases.

##### 年份表达

from 1988 to 2008

between 1988 to 2008

from 2000 until 2009

in 1988.

for …

[over/during] the next five years.

in 5 yearly intervals

### 7.3.4 小作文分段

#### 小作文开头段（20字左右）

Introduction，使用介绍句构成开头段，开头段里不要上来就描述数据+写特征，
要先介绍图的类型和背景信息，
这是一个什么图，图例是什么样的背景信息。

大小作文开篇第一句都不能照抄原文中的背景信息词汇，需要有自己的改写，
需要做同义替换，如果照抄题目，就是5分的范儿。

below,following -> 去掉

the number of students from China.
the number of students who came from China.
Chinese student number.
numbers from China.
the number of Chinese students.

The chart below shows the percentage of households in owned and rented accommodation in England and Wales between 1918 and 2011.

The graph reveals the proportion of households which lived in owned and rented accommodation in England and Wales from 1918 to 2011.

The table below shows the proportion of different categories of families living in poverty in Australia in 1999.

The table reveals the percentage of different types of Australian families who lived in poverty in 1999.

The bar chart below shows the top ten countries for the production and consumption of electricity in 2014.

The chart reveals [the amount of/how much] electricity that was produced and consumed by the top ten countries in 2014.

The number of students from Somalia increased(动词) significantly(副词).

There was a significant(形容词) increase(名词) in the number of students from Somalia.

#### 小作文主体段（2-3段，100-120字左右）

每一句描述都需要有数据的支持，忘记写数据或数据不够就是5分，
你用了8句话进行描述，那文中至少有8个或8组数据在文中存在。

主体段可以按图表分、按类目分、按特征分主体段。

按特征分

静态图可以按[大小/高低]，动态图可以按照升降趋势、区间来分段。

看图中数据的特性，找共同点找规律，按共性分组、按共性分拨，化繁为简，
把一道复杂的题拆成2-3道简单的小题，这也是小作文的比较原则，横纵都有分组的可能，
分成几组，就有几段，最少分2段，至多分3段，分组是分段的基础。

##### 主旨句

It is clear from the [table/chart/graph] that …
It can be seen from the [table/chart/graph] that …

##### 特征数据描述

【静态饼图例子】

【静态表格图例子】
Country                  Unemployment rates(%)

Both sexesMaleFemale
Australia6.56.76.5
Belize12.78.920.3
Japan4.74.94.5
Morocco22.020.327.6
Netherlands3.32.64.2

Overall,Morocco’s figures were higher than Belize’s in all three groups generally.

Obviously,Morocco’s females had/saw the peak,at 27.6%.

There were more than twice as many men in Morocco,with 20.3%,who had no job as those in Belize,with 8.9%.

Gentlemen prevailed in the aspect of finding a paid job in both countries over the ladies.

There were 20.3% of males in Morocco,which is more than two times of it in Belize with females,at 8.9%.

Both men from Morocco and women in Belize found them in equality with respect to the rate(20.3 percent)

Both gender groups had the same rate(20.3percent) in the aspects of males from Morocco and females in Belize being unemployed respectively.

【静态图7-8分范文】
A and B show similar patterns of use. In both countries, around 40 to 50% of people went to either a nurse or a hospital clinic for medical care, whereas fewer than 10 percent visited a general practitioner and visits to a specialist were rare.

In C and D, GPS were used(被动语态是亮点) as often as hospital clinics, at about 35 and 25 percent respectively, but people also frequently visited nurses,around 35% in Bratistan and 25% in Selenia. Although specialist consultations were fairly uncommon in Selenia, alomost 15% used specialists in Bratistan.

E has a very [different/unique] [pattern/profile] of health care. Here, the family doctor was used most commonly(nearly 45 percent) and specialists and hospitals were level = equal on nearly 20%. People were less accustomed to(习惯于，这里算是大胆的转述表达了) calling on(拜访) a nurse and only about 15 percent did this.

【动态图例子】
As shown in the chart, the figure started at 100, as the bottom, in the year of 1995.（100是最低值）

Then, there was a huge rise, reaching 500, which was the peak, over the following half a decade.（在5年内500是峰值）

What can be seen afterwards was a sharp decrease, whose impact was a reduction of more than half, landing at 230 in 2005.

By the end of the first decade in the new millennium, it had a consistent production with the previous data.

A bouncing trend made the figure back to the [acme/peak] during the five years following.

#### 小作文结尾段（20-30字左右）

但切记不要赘述，不要重复，总结不要出现任何数字&数据，
找图内的最大基本特征。

[in general/overall/to sum up/to summarize].（整体来看），

In general, teenagers prefer hamburgers,pizza and French fries.

Overall, audiences/people are fond of Isabella Swan, Edward Cullen and Jacob Black.

In general, there was an increase in the price of oil, and, in particular, from 1995 to 2000.

Overall, the number of students dropped slightly over the five-year period, and in particular, the number of Chinese students halved over the period.

Overall, the number of immigrants rose slightly over this ten-year period and, in particular, there was a significant increase in immigration from New Zealand, which had the largest number of arrivals in 2005.

“基本上图中所有国家的产电量都大于用电量，中美用/产电量特别多。”

A.so the oldest group has the most reliance on watching TV.
B.and the older groups have more dependence than younger ones on TV.

## 7.4 大作文解题思路

### 审题

无论是大作文还是小作文，真正写作之前都必须要先审题+列大纲，有了骨架再填肉，
真正写作之前先梳理出框架与[观点/论据]，确定其相关性，
然后再将[观点/论据]进行分类和排序，用2-3分钟整理大纲可以节省写作时间。
把用大脑思考的工作放在最前面，不要在后面一边想一边写，很浪费时间，
并且很有可能写出来的东西驴唇不对马嘴。

#### 大作文跑题

一定需要在审题时去划题干中的关键词，找准关键词的含义，
争取在主体段中覆盖到这些关键词，所谓的完整回应题目。

Some people think that the best way to reduce the time of traveling to work is to replace the gardens and parks which are located in the city centers with apartment buildings.
Do you agree or disagree?

1. 城市中要有一些绿化、休闲、放松的地方；
2. 市中心如果都是楼会给人带来一些无形的压力；
3. 工作、生活难以分开；

类似于这种观点类的题型会出现一种极端的表达方式：
[best/most important/everyone/all/only]

这种极端题，尽量不要写"同意"，因为难度太大，
你很难证明苹果手机就是最好的手机。

审题时，需要找到题干中的议论词（公园变公寓），
找到题干中的限定词（减少通勤时间的最好方式），要围绕限定词来讨论，才能保证不跑题。

### 大作文分段

一般写作结构为："总->分->总"结构，作文的开头段是全文的"总"，
后面的主体段（除了开头段和结尾段都叫主体段）是详细论证。
开头明确立场（总），中间求证&验证立场（分），结尾（总），
一般大作文是4-5段为宜，初级选手是写4段，开头1段、结尾1段、中间2段。

判卷人在看你的作文时，不会慢慢去欣赏，他们是持怀疑论的，
但是通过你详细的逻辑，清晰的脉络，再加上精准的有说服力的词汇和语法，
以及对论点的延展与解释，去最终说服他同意你的观点。

大作文的时间是40分钟，至少给自己2分钟的时间来构思+审题，
2分钟的时间用来检查，速度是可以通过刻意训练来完成的。

#### 大作文开头段（“总”，40-50字左右，5分钟左右）

Introduction，开头段的句子有顺序且非常有逻辑，需要层次清晰的递进，

【双边讨论】模板1（简单）：
There is some debate about whether …

【双边讨论】模板2（简单）：
People have different views about …

People have different views about how children should be taught. While there are some good arguments in favour of teaching children to be competitive, I believe that it is better to encourage co-operation.

【双边讨论】模板2（困难）：
Some have this thought that … , while some others hold this belief [of + 短语…/that + 句子…]

##### 1.改写题目

改写背景，引入话题，摆明[矛盾/问题]，
切记不要照抄题目，要自己做同义替换或者换一种写法不用模板，比较灵活。

Now, many parents care about their children’s education.But about when to start foreign language learning, there is debate.

【追因求解】模板1：
Currently, it is true that …

Currently, It is true that children’s behaviour seems to be getting worse. There are various reasons for this, and both schools and parents need to work together to improve the situation.

【双边讨论】模板1：
Nowadays, more and more teenagers are using cell phones, and cell phone sales to young people have greatly increased. (引出话题)There is some debate about whether(宾语从句) cellphones are dangerous for teenagers.
Some people believe they add to teenagers’ social problems while others feel they make their lives safer and more conveninet.（摆明矛盾问题）

【利弊分析】模板1：
Currently, no one dares to deny that the issue of …
has been the public focus over the past years.

Currently, no one dares to deny that the issue of whether the non-academic art or athletics subjects are less useful than academic ones.

Currently, no one dares to deny that the issue of social media is bringing us advantages or disadvantages has been the public focus over the past years.

In recent years it has become more common for women to return to work after having a child. However, I do not agree that this has been the cause of problems for young people.

##### 2.明确观点，给出立场（可省略）

在【双边讨论】题型时，第一段也尽量不要出现自己的观点，留到最后一段才好。

My perspective is that (有正有反，正面观点) …
though(反面观点，[批判思维/让步]开始) …

My perspective is that student’s all-round development is the only correct direction of education though there is the reality of passing examinations and graduation.

I, personally, hold the firm belief that [the pros outweigh the cons(利大于弊)/the cons outweigh the pros(弊大于利)]. The former(前者) are shown in … while the latter(后者) include …(利弊各主论据浓缩一下写在后面，用短语就可以，不要用句子)
I, personally, hold the firm belief that the pros outnumber their counterparts. The former are shown in making global friends easily and the sending of messages instantly, while the latter include being cheated and waste of precious time.

##### 3.过渡下文（可省略）

The detail could be found in the following essay.

I will show you the relevant details in the following part of the essay.

The following essay will elaborate more about the relevant details.

#### 大作文主体段（"分"，200字左右）

Body Paragraph，大作文拿分的大头就在主体段，非常重要。

主体段一般有2-3个，7分以下选手写2个，7分及以上选手写3个，
至少2个主体段才够说服力，2个主体段的字数相差不要太多。

1利1弊，后面要有比较，对比一下利弊。

1[同意/不同意]1让步反驳

1段讨论1边

1个原因1个[解决方案/影响]，两个段落之间一定要在数量上和内容上有关联。

##### 1.主旨句（"总"，1句话）

主体段第一句必须是这段的主旨句（Topic Sentence），
雅思阅读考试中的段落中的第一句一般也是主旨句。

主旨句的方向要看在审题时发现的题干中的关键词。

It is undeniable that … could bring positive consequences.

##### 2.[扩展/延展]句（“分”，3-5句）

每个主体段一般需要有2-3个[论据/理由]，
初级选手写2个，至少2个[论据/理由]才够说服力，
一般是一详一略，字数为7:3，
次要[论据/理由]至少也要2-3句话，不要1句话一笔代过。

切记不要写过多的[论据/理由]，
如果[论据/理由]过多，则会导致思考的时间过长，
最后可能没有时间写一个漂亮的结尾，这是得不偿失的。

1、2、3、4、5、6、7、8、9、10，

写雅思大作文千万千万千千万不要跳跃性思维，
扩展的内容一定要围绕着主旨展开，乱发散的话会被扣大分。

###### 2.1 初步[论据/理由]（“小总”，1句）

Single-sex high schools help to produce better students because there are fewer distractions in these kinds of schools than in co-educational schools.

需要注意的是，这个[论据/路由]一出来之后，
后面的几句话2.2-2.4都要围绕着这个2.1[论据/理由]里的关键词或中心思想来写，
不要天马行空想写什么就写什么，否则考官会感觉很乱，从而扣分，
写文章要换位思考，想一下读者看到你的文章是否能理解你的意思。

使用大众化的[论据/理由]即可，太偏门的[论据/理由]会导致自己的语言水平跟不上，
并且判卷人并不会因为你的[论据/理由]有多新颖而给你高分。

2.1写苹果含有丰富的营养元素，

###### 2.2 解释[论据/理由]（“小分”，1-2句）

判卷人是持有怀疑论的，如果没有解释，就无法说服判卷人，从而扣分。

Nowadays, students are learning more than ever before, and while they are trying to understand all this new knowledge, they do not need distractions. If boys and girls are studying together, they may become more focused on each other and not concentrate on the lesson.

It is because…
compared with other…it is…
when …

###### 2.3 相关例子（"小分"，1-2句）

如果没有例子会扣分，使用相应的例子来更接地气的具体解释，
不要举太多例子，最好有数字、地名、人名等等，使例子更具体化。

For instance, a male student(泛指就好) might be more interested in impressing a female peer than listening to the teacher, similarly, female students might get into arguments over popular boys, or spend their time discussing the boys in their class instead of listening to the teacher.

For instance, some many have not enough social consiousness and public order, They may jump the line or …

用[for instance/example]用来引出例子时，
例子必须是完整的句子（需要要有主谓结构的句子），这点与such as不同。

such as仅仅只是罗列东西，不是真的举例子，

We actually visited many places in Beijing, such as the Great Wall, the Summer Palace and the Forbidden City.

###### 2.4 局部总结（“小总，1句”）

If high schools are single sex, these kinds of distractions can be reduced.

Single-sex high schools help to produce better students because there are fewer distractions in these kinds of schools than in co-educational schools.

[论据/理由]1写完之后，可以用类似in addition这样的路标词引出[论据/理由]2，
轮回到2.1去，再来一遍，注意详略得当，不要全都是详写。

路标词(Signpost Words)：
路标词用于把自己的若干[论据/理由]连接起来，非常重要，
没有路标，会被扣分，因为这样会显得整篇文章很乱。

On the other hand, disadvantages can also be found about it…

On the other hand, co-ed schools have some advantages for teenagers because they offer the opportunity to learn important social skills. If young people only interact with their same sex peers, they may not feel comfortable in mixed company when they go to university. For exmaple, they may never learn how to talk easily to the opposite sex. While they are learning at university, they need to focus on their study. If they are socialising with the opposite sex for the first time at university, they may be distracted and they may neglect their studies and focus on their social life instead.

##### 主体段模板&范文
###### [同意与否/观点]

[同意]与[不同意]皆可，但如果发现题干中有绝对词，

(主旨句，不可否认，确实有好处，不能包括极端词)
It is undeniable that … could bring positive consequences. To start with,(理由1)it is indisputable that(3-5句理由A，初步理由+解释)… . For example/instance (举例子)… In addition,(3-5句理由B，初步理由+解释)…

（让步段，转折，主旨句，但并不是[最好的/最重要的/最合理的]，反驳极端词，有[比这个更好/更重要的/不足/例外]）

Nevertheless, （主旨句）there is no justification for regarding it as the most effective way, partly because(理由1)… .Furthermore, (理由2)…

###### 双边讨论

Of course, we also need to say that … + 从反面多元化地论证一句就可以，

However, …这里的句子，让你又回到开头正面论证。

For the statement on the opposite side of the dispute, I deem it rational since …(这里分析另一个说法的合理性)。

(主题句)Mobile phones can have some serious social risks. Some teenagers have become the target for cell phone bullying, and this can be very unpleasant and even lead to suicide in extreme cases. In addition, cell phone photos can be a problem. If teenagers use their phones to take inappropriate photos, these could be posted onto the internet and could cause serious problems.（两个论据，基本没有分出主次）

However, cell phones can also make teenagers’s lives safer because they allow them to be in contact with their parents or the police in an emergency. Parents can also check on their teenagers and find out where they are and what they are doing. For example, if a teenager has been drinking alcohol at a party, he or she can use his/her cell phone to call his/her parents or a taxi and get home safely. Similarly, teenagers can call for help if they feel threatened while they are away from home. In addition, mobile phones can help teenagers to get directions if they get lost while traveling to their destination.(此段落两个论据明显区分了主次，而且论证方法更为多样)

###### 利弊分析

On the one hand, many benefits can be found regarding（总体句开始）… firstly,（论据1开始，详写）… and it is because（论据1解释开始）…for instance,（论据1例子开始）… in addition,（论据2开始，略写）…

However, the draybacks brought by it should never be forgot, either .（总体句开始）… in the first place,（论据1开始，详写）…if（论据1解释开始）…for example,（论据1例子开始）… besides,（论据2开始，略写）…

###### 追因求解

As for the reasons behind this phenomenon, the first one is that … +理由1,
The second reason to explain it is due to … + 解释分析论证。

The related solutions/effects are as follows. In order to deal with it, people, first of all, should/假如问道了影响。

The effect brought by it include firstly … + 适当的解释分析论证。
The next measure is about …/There is one more effect which is … + 适当解释分析论证。

#### 大作文结尾段（“总”，30-40字，5分钟左右）

Conclusion，结尾段一定要写，

In conclusion, cell phones can be a risk for teenagers, but they also increase safety（这里明确了观点）. Teenagers need to be …

“总之，这个问题在短时间内不太可能被解决，”
“随着这些措施被采取，未来还是在很大程度上能解决的。”

##### 1.综述上文

In a word
In conclusion
To conclude
To summarise
To sum up
In summary
In sum

It is apparent that … + 综述全文最有力的论据，

It is apparent that to be a owner of house has more positive effects.

##### 2.重申观点(可省略)

Based on the argumentation above, I would like to (once again)
make my point clear that … + 重申观点。

##### 3.展望未来(可省略)

People should have the awareness of + 展望未来的话语。

What are the effects?

Base on the argumentation above, I would like to once again make my point clear that such advertising taking children as sole targets should be controlled properly, It is apparent that the far-reaching effects may be negative. People should have the awareness of caring about children’s growth.

### 标点符号

…, because renting a house is more likely to be unstable, For example, the owner of house …

Many benefits can be found regarding owning a home. Firstly, the house owner…

, so they have a golden opportunity to earn more money. However, the drawbacks brought …

Because they do not have to pay for the rent, and those individuals may use the money in a better place, such as improving their qualiry of life. Besides, the house prices …

完整的一句话就要点句号，不要无休止的逗号。
Renting house is more flexible for the young, they can move anywhere at anytime. There is a chance …

I would like to once again make my point clear that owning a home is better than renting one. It is apparent that …

### 观点类大作文写法

1.A
2.A
3.A
4.A

1.A
2.A
3.B-，说B为什么不好
4.B-，说B为什么不好

1.A/B
2.A
3.B
4.A/B

#### 让步反驳写法

1.A
2.A1+,A1-=B（让步开始，说A1的反面，或者说B）,A1+
3.A2
4.A

1.第1段开头先写A，
2.第2段求证为什么A是对的，写A1+A2，1个2个论据理由，
3.第3段写B… + A，先写一些B合理的地方，稍微解释一下，但是，再反驳，与A相比，B还是由明显的不足，A还是有明显的好处，再写一下A。
4.第4段结尾写A，首尾呼应。

1.第1段开头先写A
2.A1详
3.A2略+A3略（最多3个论据，最少2个论据,详略得当）
4.B1略+B2略（让步写2个论据，不需要例子）/ A（最后再回去写A，把B驳倒）
5.第5段结尾写A，首尾呼应

1.两边平衡，两边都对。
2.一边对，一边错。
3.两边都对，一边对的多一些，一边对的少一些

1.A/B 两边都同意
2.A1/A2/(A2-/A2+，这个是让步反驳，不是必须的)
3.B1/B2
4.A/B

### 如何反驳？

#### 直接反驳不可能

-"哪有啊？多粗啊。

Gap year的缺点
There are certain dangers in talking time off at that important age.Young adults may end up never returning to their studies…

But overall,I think this is less likely today, when …

#### 弊端更明显

-“腿细有啥用啊？我脸大啊。”

Multinational companies’ investments offer foreign currency for developing economies,which in turn help with creating jobs and wealth…

However,the dominance of multinational corporations amkes it hard for smaller local companies to thrive and succeed,and it has a much severe impact on most countries in the long term…

#### 有更好的选择

-“跟你比可差远了，你的更细。”

The increase of international tourism allows more tourists to experience different cultures.

However,it is not necessary to visit other places to learn about other cultures,because …

#### 优点成立有条件

-“没有没有，是这裤子显得。”

Distance learning provides students with more flexibility and convenience…

However,I think those advantages can only be enjoyed by students with no difficulties in …

### 如何备考写作大作文考试

【类型->结构（备考占比10%）】

【话题->思路、词汇（备考占比90%）】

教育、传统&现代生活、科技、工作、人物、动物、城市。

【语法与速度】

【批改->找问题】

## 7.5 非数据型小作文解题思路

### 地图题

#### 地图题分段

##### 开头段

The [diagrams/maps/graphs] compare the changes of one university
at two distinct stages in its development: 1975, 2010 and few projected plans in 2020.

##### 主体段
###### 主体段1，注重建筑物方位描写

The year 1975 reveals that a sports field was built to the northwest corner taking up a large area of land, with a main road running from the north to the west. Additionally, there were three detours, each connecting with a major building in the campus: a car park in the northeast, a joint drama theatre and music centre west to the car park, and a building of lecture rooms in the south east. Besides, the college library was situated to the southwestern corner of the entire map.

###### 主体2，注重建筑物变化描写

XXX扩大、XXX改造、XXX增加，等等。

By 2010, however, the campus had changed quite obviously. The size of the car park had been made bigger to accommodate more drivers, and the old drama theatre had been converted into a geology building with a slight increase in size. In the very centre of the campus, a new science building had been constructed for learning purposes connected with a larger lecture rooms.It is also interesting that half of the library had been replaced by IT centre.

##### 结尾段

In the upcoming future, a new pathway is projected to connect the new library and campus main road, and the sports centre is going to become a completely indoor facility by now.

### 流程图题

1. 没有数据，以文字描述图里的步骤为主，可适当对比步骤见简繁度（前4个步骤简单，后4个步骤较复杂，可以比较一下）。
2. 可能制作一个物件、一种食品或物质，也可能分拆回收一件东西，比如：报纸、玻璃瓶、手机。
3. 偶尔有生长周期图出现，比如大马哈鱼的生长周期，可能是一个循环的过程，要写相关的句子。

1. 要客观，不要主观添加内容。
2. 题目背景信息要替换几个用词，不可以照抄。
3. 注意被动态的使用，被分解、被制作，be + done/ it then will be put into the pot to .../偶尔祈使句也可以 Then,put it into the pot to ...
4. 提示词一般不可更改，不必替换，照抄就可以，提示词在作为中必须要使用到。
5. 非谓语动词的应用：不定式和现在分词、动名词。举例子：To make the paper smooth,use the ...；After boiling the water,...；These are mixed in the pot using a spoon.
6. 提示词里的生词要结合前后图来猜测，也可以使用常识判断其词义。
7. 前后步骤的衔接词一定要有，In the beginning stage,for the following setp,then,afterwards,in the eventual step。

5.5分例文：
The bread making process has 6 key stages.

In the first stage, warm water and sugar are added to yeast to activate it, Then the activated yeast is added to flour and salt and more water is added to make dough. The dough is kneaded for about 10 minutes to make it smooth and shiny. In the next stage, the dough is left to rise in a warm place for about 1 to 3 hours. Then, it is punched down to release air, and is kneaded again for a few minutes. After that, it is then shaped into loaves and left to rise a second time for about one hour. Finally, it is baked at 200 degrees Celsius in an oven for about 10 to 15 minutes.

## 7.6 综合写作技巧

### 使用代词

In order to improve the air quality, it is necessary to reduce the number of cars running in the street. Of course , it may not be able to be carried out because vehicles have become a necessity in our daily life.

Some people think learning history in school is important. Others think learning subjects more relevant to life is important. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

### 写作禁忌

#### 不要去死背模板

不要用你自己都不熟悉的单词，不要制造机会让考官扣你分，
词汇不求有多华丽，只要句子结构和连接词用的出彩些。

大作文的[论据/理由]最好提前就想好，现场想论据，时间会非常紧张。

6分作文有6分的写法，7分有7分的写法，
不要用6分的水平去套7分的[框架/模板]，最后可能导致5.5分。
6分的话想写什么就写什么，7分的话需要使用在剑雅高分范文中学到的表达方式。

1. 理解模板句，知道其含义，知道其为什么这么写，底层逻辑是什么。
2. 活学活用，刻意训练，形成自己的套路。
3. 加料，结合话题准备语料，高频论点。

1. 凑字数、堆废话，241<字数<250并不会扣分，如果160<字数<240，则在任务回应部分会被扣1分。

2. 机械套用模板，不是每个模板都都适用所有的场景，如果硬穿会显得非常不自然从而导致扣分，要因为句子改模板，模板很难用准确，用的不自然，就会扣成5.5分。

3. 追求偏难怪，越小众的模板的适用范围越窄，如果不是非常了解模板句的含义，就很容易闹出笑话，使句子变得很销魂。

4. 有结构没有料，模板用对了，但是模板里的…部分没写好，依然得不了高分，除了背模板，还需要背一些语料，让判卷人看到你用了逼格较高的模板但内容很平凡，一眼就能看出是抄的模板，导致万年5.5分。

#### 禁止缩写&简写&口语化表达

禁止can't，要写成cannot，cannot比较特殊，必须要合起来写

有很多从句是可以省略that等连词的，写作一定不能省略that等连词。

you konw?
what?
get …
hey…
kid
come again?
you got it?
I got it.

### 写作语法亮点

to do，表示：目的、将来；
to be or not to be , that is a question.

doing，可以当名词来用；
I like playing baseball.

doing，表示：主动、进行；

done，表示：被动、完成；
mission accomplished

We like to lie in bed reading books不定式+现代分词

Nowadays, almost all the Chinese are learning English for internationalization.

#### 使用情态动词

must必须表示建议，
have to必须，不得不表示建议，一般在劝告或建议时使用。
should应该表示建议，should可以替换need to，will have to，must
shall必须
will将会表示确切的推测
would将会表示推测
can
could可能表示推测
may也许maybe的使用率为0，特别口语化
might也许

If boys and girls study together, they may become more focused on each other, and not concentrate on the lesson.

Students will not pass their exams if they do not study.

generally/probably/possibly/presumably

be likely to,possible,probable,[may/might]

ought to 表示法定的东西，合同中；
be supposed to不正式，本应该做什么，但没有做到， 期望做某事，没人用；

### 使用第三人称描述

大小作文中都尽量不要使用主观描述，因为不够客观，没有说服力，
不要第二人称，尽量使用第三人称，
第一人称只能用在大作文的结尾重申观点时才能用，例如：in my opinion,I believe...。

I can see from the pie chart that…
We can see from the pie chart that…

It can be seen from the char that…

The pie chart shows …

The graph shows …
只有带横纵坐标的图才能用"graph"这个单词。

The xxx chart [reveals/shows] the percentage about…

The bar chart reveals the percentage about people in deifferent age groups who depend on watching TV in their daily life.

The pie chart shows the fast foods that teenagers prefer in the USA.

The pie chart shows the percentage of the [roles/characters] that people prefer in Twilight.

The chart below shows the percentage of households in owned and rented accommodation in England and Wales between 1918 and 2011.

well you know,you see,太随意了，不要把判卷人拉进来。

用第三人称客观呈现的例子，不需要具体人名，非特指第三人称就好。

# 8. 口语 SPEAKING

PART 1与PART 3都是一问一答形式，PART 2是答题卡形式，需要自己陈述。

目标分数不是口语7分的同学，可以只把复习重点放到PART 1 和PART 2上。

口语考试中，无论你用的是英音还是美音都无所谓。

考官其实是不care你是有还是没有的，只要你能说出来理由就ok，
考官care的是你回答答案时所展现出来的强大的语言能力。
口语考试是语言能力展示，而并非结果本身，所以可以有范围的"胡说八道"。
说你会说的，而不是说你想说的，当然了，对于一些客观题就不要忽悠考官了。

https://yangminghan.blog.csdn.net/article/details/106865560

## 与口语考官的交流

考试的时候要有表情，肢体和面部都要，要有表达的张力

## 口语评分标准

PART 1结束后，你有四项分数，之后再开始PART 2的推进，
PART 2结束后，你也有四项分数，之后是PART 3的推进，
PART 3结束后，会计算你这四项每一个项的平均分，

(6+6+5+5)/4 = 5.5分
(6+6+6+5)/4 = 5.75分 = 5.5分
(6+6+6+6)/4 = 6分
(6+6+6+7)/4 = 6.25分 = 6分
(6+6+7+7)/4 = 6.5分

在考试中考生难免会犯错，那犯错就要扣分，一类错误只扣一次，
第二次再犯的时候就不会扣分了，因此也不用去纠结这类错误了。

### Fluency and Coherence(FC)

语速快慢并不是衡量分数的标准，
但是否卡壳、是否有大面积的停顿，就是考核标准之一了。

7* 表达详尽，并无明显困难，或不失连贯； * 有时出现与语言相关的犹豫或出现重复及/或自我纠正； * 具有一定灵活性地使用一系列连接词和语篇标记；
6* 表现出充分交流的意愿，但有时由于偶尔的重复、自我纠正或犹豫而缺乏连贯性； * 能使用一系列连接词及语篇标记，但无法保持一贯恰当；
5* 通常能保持语流，但需通过重复、自我纠正及/或降低语速来维持表达； * 过度使用某些连接词及语篇标记； * 能用简单的语言进行流利的表达（句子长度比较短），但在进行更为复杂的交流时则表达不畅

### Lexical Resource(LR)

7* 灵活地使用词汇讨论各种话题； * 使用一些非常见的词汇及习语，对语体及词汇搭配有所认识，但有时词语选择不甚恰当； * 有效地进行改述；
6* 有足以详尽讨论各种话题的词汇量，虽然有时使用不当但意思表达清晰； * 基本上能成功地进行改述；
5* 能谈论熟悉或不熟悉的话题，但使用词汇的灵活性有限； * 尝试进行改述，但有时成功有时失败；

### Grammatical Range and Accuracy(GRA)

口语中自己发现语法错误可以自行更正。

7* 较灵活地使用一系列复杂的语法结构； * 虽然反复出现一些语法错误，但语句通常正确无误；
6* 结合使用简单与复杂的句型，但灵活性有限； * 使用复杂结构时经常出现错误，尽管这些错误极少造成理解困难；
5* 能使用基本的句型，且具有合理的准确性； * 使用有限的复杂句式结构，但通常会出错且会造成某些理解困难；

### Pronunciation

https://yangminghan.blog.csdn.net/article/details/100188088

7表现出 6 分水平中所有积极表现，但也表现出 8 分水平中部分积极表现；
6* 使用多种发音特点，但掌握程度不一； * 展现出某些有效使用发音特点的能力，但不能持续表现这一能力； * 表达过程中听者基本能理解，但部分单词或音发音不准确导致有时清晰度下降；
5表现出 4 分水平中所有积极表现，但也表现

## 口语一问一答策略

PART 1与PART 3都是一问一答的形式，考生几乎没有任何的思考时间，
考生对于每个问题的回答时间是在8-23秒。

5.5分：2-3句
6.0分：3句左右
6.5分：3-5话

direct answer + (reasons + examples + details)

### 给出直接答案

注意不要跑题：不需要抛砖引玉，直接正面给出答案，
PART 1与PART 3都是开门见山，不要绕弯子，并不是越长越好，可能会言多必失。

一般疑问句：要用yes/no来回答；
特殊疑问句：不能用yes/no来回答；
选择疑问句：从A/B中选一个；（如果使用prefer提问，那么要用prefer回答）

跑题回答：不，我不喜欢运动，我喜欢玩电脑游戏，我觉得玩游戏很有趣。
不跑题回答：不，我不喜欢运动，因为运动太累了。

如果没有听懂考官说的问题，而不是单纯的重复一遍，可以使用：
Could you paraphrase,please?
（全场最多用2次）

paraphrase [ˈpærəfreɪz]
v，释义、解释

Pardon?
Sorry?
Sorry,I didn’t hear you.Could you repeat the question?

### 拓展

拓展句子的三个方法Reasons + Examples + Details
（RED原则）：原因，例子，细节。

#### 原因

because + 句子
because of + 名词性短语
since …
for …
as …
coz(只用于口语，because的缩写)
The main reason is that … (表语从句)
The reason why … is that … (定语从句嵌套表语从句)

#### 举例子

2-3个例子就可以了。

I really like watching TV Programs.
especially American Drama.
Such as 《West World》、《Prison Break》、or something like that.

Well, I like watching different kinds of TV programs,[such as /in particular],soap operas and variety shows.

Step1:

[various/different types/kinds/sorts of]
a variety of

Step2：

[for example/for instance] + 句子
[such as/like] + 名词/动名词

especially
[in particular/particularly]

#### 细节

When:after work/school,at weekends…
Where:at the playground,at the gym…
Who:alone,with friends,with children,with parents…

What do you usually do in your spare time?
Well, I usually do some window-shopping with my colleagues in our free time on the high street, which is entertaining.

## 口语流程&题型

### PART 1

PART 1如果考生有一道题听不懂考官在说啥，那么分数肯定低于6分。

PART 1中考官不会对问题进行发散，因此PART 1的回答中可以举例子，

PART 3考官会问一些拓展性的问题。

#### Introduction(20-30s)

这个阶段不计分，主要是用于考官核实一下考生的身份。

1.Good morning/afternoon.My name is xxx.
-Good morning/afternoon, [madam/sir], My name is 中文名。

2.What [shall/can/may] I call you?
-You can call me 英文名.

3.Can you tell me where you are from?/Where do you come from?
-I come from ShenYang. Liaoning Province.

-Sure,here you are/sure/ok



#### Daily&General Questions(4-5m)

从这部分开始，考官开始计分。

每个Topic下有3-4个Question，共计会被问到9-12个左右的Question。

PART 1中考官主要询问考生自己相关的问题，

often、sometimes、always、much、seldom、never、hardly ever。

a lot、quite a lot、(not) very much、often、(not) very often、quite often、sometimes、much、not very、all the time。

##### Topic 1

Topic 1一定会从这三个话题中选一个来考，
下面三个话题是必考话题之一，非常非常重要。

1. [工作/学习]
2. 住宿
3. 家乡

https://yangminghan.blog.csdn.net/article/details/106865560

##### Topic 2

Topic 2主要是从兴趣爱好、饮食、朋友等话题来问你，

##### Topic 3

Topic 3会更新、更难，例如：

### PART 2 + PART 3

PART 2主要用于考官检测考生是否可以自己讲的很久，

PART 1结束后，考官一般会说四句话作为PART 1与PART 2的过渡。

Now I'm going to give you a topic card,

Before start to talk, you'll have one minute to think about what you are going to say.

You can make some notes if you wish on the paper.

Do you understand?
-Yes I do（点头）


#### Describing a Topic Card(3-4m)

准备的过程中尽量不要发出任何声音，因为是全程录音状态。

Talk about a subject you are studying.
You should say:
what subject you are studying
what the subject is about
how you feel about it
and explain why you are interested in it.

不要仅仅只回答那4个提示，要有自己的发散思维，联想到其他的point，
还需要有逻辑上的衔接，需要使用一些逻辑连接词，切记不要逻辑凌乱。
如果仅仅只是回答4个提示的话，每个提示只说1-2句话，那么说满一分钟都难。

可以把若干关键词（名、动）、短语简写在草稿纸上，
千万不要写整句、长句，因为时间非常有限，
只写短小精悍的提示词即可。

Could you start speaking now,please?


考试如果想拿到口语6分及6分以上，至少要说满2分钟，
如果发现没有说满2分钟，那分数肯定是6分以下。
最好说到考官让你停为止，不建议自己主动喊停。

PART 2是需要背诵部分语料的，话题卡的数量非常多，
考生无法全部背下来答案，因此高效的方法是只记录每个话题卡的关键词，
如果正好遇到了背过了100遍的话题卡，需要演技，不要让考官发现你是在背。

PART 2有点像做演讲，回答的开头一般需要有引题句，例如：
I’m going to talk about …

I [like/enjoy] xxx for a few reasons,
First/Firstly
Second/Secondly
[Meanwhile/Besides/In other words]（换句话说）
Finally

#### Two-way Discussion(4-5m)

PART2结束后，考官一般会说一句话作为PART 2与PART 3的过渡：

You've been talking about xxx and now I'm going to ask you more general questions related to this topic.


PART 3也是最能拉开分数的部分。

目标分数不在7的考生只需要听懂题+对于考官的问题回复1-3句话，
代表自己的观点，不要出大面积的语法错误即可，
这样分数会维持在PART 2的分数。

PART 3部分，让你不加思索的回答考官的问题是比较难的，

PART 3的随机性和灵活性非常强，

如果需要举例子的话尽量不要举自己身上的例子，
因为PART 3是更广泛的社会问题，自己仅仅只是一个个例而已。

PART 3与PART 1都是一问一答的方式，但区别在哪里？
PART 1主要是考官问考生关于考生自己的问题，
PART 3主要是问考生对这个社会与世界的认知，
并不是"我怎么怎么样"，而是"谁谁谁怎么怎么样"，
需要有条理性，分层分类。

PART 3的回答需要注重：因果、对比、例子。

In my view, there are several differences …

I’m not sure I agree with that, you see …

I think we’ll probably see a lot of …

Maybe there will be more …

It’s unlikely that we will have …

PART 3结束后，考官一般会站起来说：

Thank you so much for your examination time. Bye, have a nice day.


## 口语技巧

### 雅思口语题库

雅思口语考试在每年的1、5、9月会进行换题，换题后，
当季的口语试题不会发生变化，这样就会存在1-4、5-8、9-12的题库。

考生需要去下载相应的口语考试题库，
PART 1与PART 2会从题库中抽题来考试。
考生在参加口语考试前必须把当季的题库多刷两遍，
尽量不要临场发挥。

### 如何备考口语考试

雅思口语考试是必须要备考的科目，因为如果没有准备，
你很可能根本回答不上来考官问你的问题，或者回答的非常蹩脚。
所以考口语之前，一定要确定以及肯定自己已经准备好了，再去考。
不要抱有侥幸心理觉得这次题可能简单，近期的雅思考试的难度都差不多。

考试前需要把雅思口语题库和机经多看2遍，确保题干中没有生词。

如果觉得自己的口语已经练的还可以了，
需要付费去找专业的老师模考或做练习，也可以用官方口语服务
专业老师会找出自己的不足之处。

也许你觉得自己说的挺好，但其实还是万年5.5的范畴，
这样在没有专业老师指导的前提下是没办法量变引起质变的。

1-2月：题目以新话题为主，老话题为辅；
3-4月：新旧各占50%；

### 习惯用语 Idiomatic Vocabulary

习语是不用考虑语法规则的。
习语稍微用一点就行，不用太多，否则不符合老外的表达习惯。

She’s a couch potato.

mouse potato.

He’s a people person.

people = sociable.

I decide to have some fun and let my hair down.

let one’s hair down

grab a coffee

seldom,rarely -> once in a bule moon.

I use perfume once in a bule moon.

### 善用频率副词

How often do you buy shoes online?

I never buy shoes online, because there are many fake shoes online.

Do you often write with a pen?
-I rarely wirte with a pen but
I often type with my laptop.

### 口语禁忌

#### 禁用of course

of course表示一种常识性的东西，

of course！

#### 不要"那个"、"这个"

oh,well,actually,basically,how to say,you know,
I mean,to be honest/honestly,literally.

# 总结

雅思考试绝对不仅仅只是一个语言类考试，
它更是一个多维度的考试，包括考察你的：
语言能力、耐力&恒心、学习能力、搜索能力、时间管理能力、自控力等等。

备考雅思一定要多练，多练，再多练，
知识的积累在于重复，一遍记不住，那就记十遍，
所谓practice makes perfect。

使用 + 重复 = 熟练。

把知识点[整理/汇总]到自己的笔记中，才有机会高效高频地重复。

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